Perceived Quality of Urban Wetland Parks: A Second-Order Factor Structure Equation Modeling

Jiang Li, Qiao Pan, You Peng (Corresponding author), Tao Feng, Shaobo Liu, Xiaoxi Cai, Chixing Zhong, Yicheng Yin, Wenbo Lai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
34 Downloads (Pure)


Wetland in the urban or peri-urban areas has been recognized as an important component of urban ecosystems and provides ecological and environmental services. Wetland park emerged as a kind of restoration of natural wetlands in the context of increasing pressure on land and eco-environment caused by urban sprawl, which has played an essential role in providing recreational spaces/opportunities and improving social interactions. However, little research has been conducted on the theoretical formulation elaborating individuals’ perceived quality of wetland parks when people are engaging in activities therein. This study is an attempt to develop a method to measure the quality of wetland parks based on individuals’ various perceptions and attitudes. From the view of human-nature interaction, the perceived quality is hypothetically conceptualized as a composite of two dimensions, such as comfort perception and environmental satisfaction. A series of questionnaire-based surveys were conducted among respondents (N = 936) in Yanghu wetland park in Changsha, China. Based on the measured items from on-site surveys, second-order factor structural equation modeling is applied to estimate the hypothesis of a hierarchical structure for elaborating how the quality of wetland park is perceived by individual respondents. The results test the hypothesis that the quality of wetland park as a second-order theoretical construct can be conceptualized by two first-order theoretical constructs, individuals’ comfort (loading = 0.749), and environmental satisfaction (loading = 0.828). In addition, a significant influence of attitudes toward green space on the perceived quality of wetland park has been identified.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7204
Number of pages15
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 3 Sep 2020


  • urban wetland park
  • perceived quality
  • outdoor comfort
  • environmental satisfaction
  • second-order factor structural equation modeling


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