Overview of efficient high-quality state-of-the-art depth enhancement methods by thorough design space exploration

L.P.J. Vosters (Corresponding author), C. Varekamp, G. de Haan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
243 Downloads (Pure)


High-quality 3D content generation requires high-quality depth maps. In practice, depth maps generated by stereo-matching, depth sensing cameras, or decoders, have low resolution and suffer from unreliable estimates and noise. Therefore, depth enhancement is necessary. Depth enhancement comprises two stages: depth upsampling and temporal post-processing. In this paper, we extend our previous work on depth upsampling in two ways. First we propose PWAS-MCM, a new depth upsampling method, and we show that it achieves on average the highest depth accuracy compared to other efficient state-of-the-art depth upsampling methods. Then, we benchmark all relevant state-of-the-art filter-based temporal post-processing methods on depth accuracy by conducting a parameter space search to find the optimum set of parameters for various upscale factors and noise levels. Then we analyze the temporal post-processing methods qualitatively. Finally, we analyze the computational complexity of each depth upsampling and temporal post-processing method by measuring the throughput and hardware utilization of the GPU implementation that we built for each method.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-375
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Real-Time Image Processing
Issue number2
Early online date27 Oct 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019


  • Benchmark
  • Depth enhancement
  • Depth upsampling
  • Design space exploration
  • Image plus depth
  • Parameter space search
  • Temporal filter


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