OT Modeling: The Enterprise Beyond IT

Paola Lara Machado, Mario Sánchez, Jorge Villalobos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Enterprises are composed of an enormous number of elements (e.g., organizational units, human resources, production processes, and IT systems) typically classified in the business or the IT domain. However, some crucial elements do not belong in either group: they are directly responsible for producing and delivering the company’s goods and services and include all the elements that support day to day operations. Collectively, these elements have been called operational technologies (OT) and have been conspicuously excluded from enterprise modeling (EM) approaches which traditionally have focused on the business and IT dimensions. Evidence of this is the absence of OT elements in languages and metamodels for EM. This is in line with the historical division between IT and OT in organizations that has led to information silos, independent teams, and disparate technologies that only recently have started to be reconciled. Considering that OT is critical to most productive organizations, and the benefits that EM brings to its understanding and improvement, it makes sense to expand EM to include OT. For that purpose, this paper proposes an extension to ArchiMate 3.0 which includes crucial OT elements. On top of that, this paper also proposes an approach to further expand ArchiMate to address specific industries where more specific OT elements are required. This is illustrated in the paper with an extension for the Oil and Gas case that was validated with experts belonging to five companies in the sector.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)399-411
Number of pages13
JournalBusiness & Information Systems Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • ArchiMate
  • Enterprise modeling
  • Operational technologies


Dive into the research topics of 'OT Modeling: The Enterprise Beyond IT'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this