Orthonormal basis functions in time and frequency domain: Hambo transform theory

Peter S.C. Heuberger, Thomas J. de Hoog, Paul M.J. van den Hof, Bo Wahlberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


The class of finite impulse response (FIR), Laguerre, and Kautz functions can be generalized to a family of rational orthonormal basis functions for the Hardy space H 2 of stable linear dynamical systems. These basis functions are useful for constructing efficient parameterizations and coding of linear systems and signals, as required in, e.g., system identification, system approximation, and adaptive filtering. In this paper, the basis functions are derived from a transfer function perspective as well as in a state space setting. It is shown how this approach leads to alternative series expansions of systems and signals in time and frequency domain. The generalized basis functions induce signal and system transforms (Hambo transforms), which have proved to be useful analysis tools in various modelling problems. These transforms are analyzed in detail in this paper, and a large number of their properties are derived. Principally, it is shown how minimal state space realizations of the system transform can be obtained from minimal state space realizations of the original system and vice versa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1347-1373
Number of pages27
JournalSIAM Journal on Control and Optimization
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Cascade inner network
  • Expansion coefficients
  • Hambo transform
  • Orthogonal basis functions


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