In bone tissue engineering (TE), an efficient seeding and homogenous distribution of cells is needed to avoid cell loss and damage as well as to facilitate tissue development. Dynamic seeding methods seem to be superior to the static ones because they tend to result in a more homogeneous cell distribution by using kinetic forces. However, most dynamic seeding techniques are elaborate or require special equipment and its influence on the final bone tissue-engineered construct is not clear. In this study, we applied a simple, dynamic seeding method using an orbital shaker to seed human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) on silk fibroin scaffolds. Significantly higher cell numbers with a more homogenous cell distribution, increased osteogenic differentiation, and mineral deposition were observed using the dynamic approach both for 4 and 6 hours as compared to the static seeding method. The positive influence of dynamic seeding could be attributed to both cell density and distribution but also nutrient supply during seeding and shear stresses (0.0-3.0 mPa) as determined by computational simulations. The influence of relevant mechanical stimuli during seeding should be investigated in the future, especially regarding the importance of mechanical cues for bone TE applications. Our results highlight the importance of adequate choice of seeding method and its impact on developing tissue-engineered constructs. The application of this simple seeding technique is not only recommended for bone TE but can also be used for seeding similar porous scaffolds with hBMSCs in other TE fields.
Bibliographical note© 2020 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research® published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society.
- stem cells
- tissue engineering