Reversed-phase liquid chromatography using silica-based columns is successfully applied in many separations. However, also some drawbacks exist, i.e. the analysis of basic compounds is often hampered by ionic interaction of the basic analytes with residual silanols present on the silica surface, which results in asymmetrical peaks and irreproducible retention. In this review, options to optimise the LC analysis of basic pharmaceutical compounds are discussed, i.e. eluent optimisation (pH, silanol blockers) and stationary phase optimisation (development of new columns with minimised ionic interactions). The applicability of empirical based, thermodynamically based and test methods based on a retention model to characterise silica-based reversed phase stationary phases, as well as the influence of the eluent composition on the LC analysis of basic substances is described. Finally, the applicability of chemometrical techniques in column classification is shown.
Vervoort, R. J. M., Debets, A. J. J., Claessens, H. A., Cramers, C. A. M. G., & Jong, de, G. J. (2000). Optimisation and characterisation of silica-based reversed-phase liquid chromatographic systems for the analysis of basic pharmaceuticals. Journal of Chromatography, A, 897(1-2), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673%2800%2900811-6, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(00)00811-6