A comprehensive procedure for the derivation of optimal, full-operating-range zero voltage switching (ZVS) modulation schemes for single-phase, single-stage, bidirectional and isolated dual active bridge (DAB) ac-dc converters is presented. The converter topology consists of a DAB dc-dc converter, receiving a rectified ac line voltage via a synchronous rectifier. The DAB comprises primary and secondary side full bridges, linked by a high-frequency isolation transformer and a series inductor. ZVS modulation schemes previously proposed in the literature are either based on current-based or energy-based ZVS analyses. The procedure outlined in this paper for the calculation of optimal DAB modulation schemes (i.e., combined phase-shift, duty-cycle, and switching frequency modulation) relies on a novel, more accurate, current-dependent charge-based ZVS analysis, taking into account the amount of charge that is required to charge the nonlinear parasitic output capacitances of the switches during commutation. Thereby, the concept of "commutation inductance(s)" is shown to be an essential element in achieving full-operating-range ZVS. The proposed methods are applied to a 3.7 kW, bidirectional, and unity power factor electric vehicle battery charger which interfaces a 400 V dc-bus with the 230 Vac, 50-Hz utility grid. Experimental results obtained from a high-power-density, high-efficiency converter prototype are given to validate the theoretical analysis and practical feasibility of the proposed strategy.
Everts, J., Krismer, F., Van den Keybus, J., Driesen, J., & Kolar, J. W. (2014). Optimal ZVS modulation of single-phase single-stage bidirectional DAB AC-DC converters. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 29(8), 3954-3970. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2013.2292026