Optimal Design of Electric Micromobility Vehicles

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2 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a modeling and optimization framework to design battery electric micromobility vehicles, minimizing their total cost of ownership (TCO). Specifically, we first identify a model of the electric powertrain of an e-scooter and an e-moped consisting of a battery, a single electric motor and a transmission. Second, we frame an optimal joint design and control problem minimizing the TCO of the vehicles. Since this problem is nonlinear w.r.t. the motor size and the total mass of the vehicle, but convex if their value is given, we efficiently solve the problem for a range of motor sizes with an algorithm based on second-order conic programming iterating on the vehicle's mass. Finally, we showcase our framework on custom-created driving cycles for both vehicles on hilly and flat scenarios, providing an in-depth analysis of the results and a numerical validation with high-fidelity simulations. Our results show that the characteristics of the area where the vehicles are employed have a significant impact on their optimal design, whilst revealing that regenerative braking and gear-changing capabilities (as in the case of a continuously variable transmission) may not be worth implementing.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2021 IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2021)
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-7281-9142-3
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2021
Event24th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2021 - Indianapolis, United States
Duration: 19 Sep 202122 Sep 2021
Conference number: 24


Conference24th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2021
Abbreviated titleITSC 2021
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Dr. Ilse New for proofreading this paper and Juriaan van den Hurk for the fruitful discussions.


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