This paper presents a modeling and optimization framework to design battery electric micromobility vehicles, minimizing their total cost of ownership (TCO). Specifically, we first identify a model of the electric powertrain of an e-scooter and an e-moped consisting of a battery, a single electric motor and a transmission. Second, we frame an optimal joint design and control problem minimizing the TCO of the vehicles. Since this problem is nonlinear w.r.t. the motor size and the total mass of the vehicle, but convex if their value is given, we efficiently solve the problem for a range of motor sizes with an algorithm based on second-order conic programming iterating on the vehicle's mass. Finally, we showcase our framework on custom-created driving cycles for both vehicles on hilly and flat scenarios, providing an in-depth analysis of the results and a numerical validation with high-fidelity simulations. Our results show that the characteristics of the area where the vehicles are employed have a significant impact on their optimal design, whilst revealing that regenerative braking and gear-changing capabilities (as in the case of a continuously variable transmission) may not be worth implementing.
|Title of host publication||2021 IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC 2021)|
|Publisher||Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers|
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - 25 Oct 2021|
|Event||24th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2021 - Indianapolis, United States|
Duration: 19 Sep 2021 → 22 Sep 2021
Conference number: 24
|Conference||24th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITSC 2021|
|Abbreviated title||ITSC 2021|
|Period||19/09/21 → 22/09/21|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Dr. Ilse New for proofreading this paper and Juriaan van den Hurk for the fruitful discussions.