Optimal control of a wave energy converter

R.W.M. Hendrikx, J. Leth, P. Andersen, W.P.M.H. Heemels

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)


The optimal control strategy for a wave energy converter (WEC) with constraints on the control torque is investigated. The goal is to optimize the total energy delivered to the electricity grid. Using Pontryagin's maximum principle, the solution is found to be singular-bang. Using higher order conditions, the optimal control on the singular arc is found as a function of the state and costate trajectories. Furthermore, it is shown that the transitions between bang and singular subarcs are discontinuous. Based on these findings the results of a numerical direct method are validated. Finally, the optimal control is used to benchmark an existing MPC strategy. It is found that for active control torque constraints the MPC strategy does not result in the discontinuous singular-bang transitions. However, the difference in harvested power is small.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication1st Annual IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications, CCTA 2017
Place of PublicationPiscataway
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781509021826
Publication statusPublished - 6 Oct 2017
Event1st IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications, CCTA 2017 - The Mauna Lani Bay Hotel and Bungalows, Kohala Coast, United States
Duration: 27 Aug 201730 Aug 2017
Conference number: 1


Conference1st IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications, CCTA 2017
Abbreviated titleCCTA 2017
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityKohala Coast


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