The microwave (MW)-assisted synthesis of one dimensional carbon systems is introduced as a promising approach to improve the speed and cost-effectiveness of the fabrication process. Improved reaction conditions are generated by direct MW heating and synthesis under advanced reaction conditions. The influence of the reaction conditions is investigated and the importance of individual process parameters on the synthesis is discussed. Temperature and pressure data recorded during the irradiation process are analyzed in detail and allow the determination of essential process parameters. This leads to improved reaction conditions, better control of the one-dimensional carbon nanosystems by tuning the catalyst materials, and allows expanding this approach to initiate the synthesis on a variety of different substrates, such as quartz glass and mica.