On the possibilities of straightforward characterization of plasma activated water

Wilfred Hoeben (Corresponding author), Polo van Ooij, Daan Schram, Tom Huiskamp, Guus Pemen, P. Lukes

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Plasma activated deionized water from a hot arc 150 W PAW synthesizer has been analyzed for nitrite, nitrate and peroxide densities. Observed nitrite and nitrate levels are impressive, reaching several millimoles per liter at few hundred kiloJoules per liter energy input. Nitrate levels appear positively influenced by the applied energy density, together with a less pronounced increase in nitrite levels and limiting energy density for maximum peroxide levels. Active PAW cooling during synthesis appears to be essential for obtaining relevant peroxide levels and connected PAW activity. In addition to established laboratory diagnostics, alternative low access tools have been investigated for applicability of PAW characterization in off-lab situations. Although no unique parameter exists to properly represent PAW activity, pH, oxidizing-reduction potential and electrical conductivity provide important insight, together with aqueous phase nitrite absorption spectrometry. Finally, classic acid-base titration has been applied to find access to the complex mixture of acidic reactive nitrogen species.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)597-626
Number of pages30
JournalPlasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2 Apr 2019


  • Atmospheric plasma liquid interaction
  • Plasma activated water
  • Pulsed power plasma technology
  • Reactive nitrogen species (RNS)
  • Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS)
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  • Wet chemical analysis


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