To isolate the effect of flame–wall interaction from representative operating conditions of an internal combustion engine, experiments were performed in a constant-volume pre-burn vessel. Three different wall geometries were studied at distances of 32.8, 38.2, and 46.2 mm from a single-hole 0.09-mm orifice diameter fuel injector. A flat wall provides a simplified case of flame–wall interaction. To mimic the division of a jet into two regions by the piston bowl rim in an engine, a two-dimensional confined wall is used. A third, axisymmetric confined wall geometry allows a second simplified comparison to numerical simulations in a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes framework. As a limiting situation for a free jet, the distance from the injector orifice to the end wall of the chamber is 95 mm. Thermocouples installed in the end wall provided insights into local heat losses for reference cases without a wall insert. The test conditions were according to the Engine Combustion Network Spray A guidelines with an ambient temperature of 900 K and an ambient density of 22.8 kg/m3 with 15% O2. Flame structures were studied using high-speed OH* chemiluminescence with integrated single-shot OH PLIF and combined with pressure-based apparent heat release data to infer combustion progress and spray behavior. Soot was studied in a qualitative manner using high-speed natural luminosity imaging with integrated high-speed laser-induced incandescence. Overall, increased mixing upon interaction with the surfaces is observed to increase early heat release rate and to significantly reduce soot, with the nearest wall distance showing most effect. The flat wall gives rise to the most significant effects in all cases.
- apparent heat release rate
- Engine Combustion Network Spray A
- flame–wall interaction
- high-pressure diesel sprays
- optical diagnostic techniques
- flame-wall interaction