A complete functional 60-GHz BiCMOS single-chip millimeter-wave frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar with on-chip integrated antennas is designed, realized, and experimentally validated. The chip is configured with one transmitting and two receiving antennas. A high antenna efficiency and isolation between the transmitting and receiving antennas is achieved by using a cavity-backed on-chip monopole and by optimizing the package environment. Surface-wave losses and back radiation are reduced, and a high antenna gain is obtained with small ripples in the antenna pattern by implementing special structures on the PCB of the integrated circuit package. The experimental results from the single-chip radar show that the on-chip antennas provide a gain of 2 dBi with very low back radiation. The realized antennas achieve an impedance bandwidth of more than 50% with a corresponding simulated efficiency of 45%. In addition, the proposed approach suppresses surface waves and meets the specific FMCW radar requirements, such as a more than 25-dB isolation between the transmitting and receiving antennas.
- Antenna efficiency
- cavity-backed on-chip monopole (CBOM)
- millimeter-wave (mm-wave)
- surface waves