Numerical analysis of wind-driven rain shelter in sports stadia for different stadium geometries

T. van Hooff, M. Harten, van, B.J.E. Blocken

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Abstract

Sports stadia are increasingly used to host a wide variety of activities that attract large attendances, ranging from sports matches to concerts, festivities and conferences. One of the crucial aspects of spectator comfort in open stadia is protection from wind and rain. However, in many stadia this part of spectator comfort is insufficiently taken care of. The main reason is that stadia and stadium roofs are often designed with only vertical rainfall in mind, neglecting the influence of wind that can sweep the rain onto the stands. This wind-driven rain (WDR) can reach a large area of the stand underneath the roof, resulting in discomfort for the spectators in this area. This paper presents 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of WDR shelter for 12 different generic stadia configurations that are representative for a wide range of existing stadia. The wind-flow patterns are determined by steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navi-er-Stokes (RANS) simulations, after which the WDR trajectories are calculated using Lagrangian particle tracking. This study demonstrates the influence of both stand arrangement and roof slope on the area of the stand that is wetted by WDR. It shows the importance of taking into account WDR in the stadium design process, and it provides some design guidelines to avoid this type of spectator discomfort.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication5th International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering, 23-27 May 2010, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
Pages1-8
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Event5th International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering (CWE 2010), May 23-27, 2010, Chapel Hill, N.C., USA - William and Ida Friday Center for Continuing Education, Chapel Hill, United States
Duration: 23 May 201027 May 2010
Conference number: 5
http://renci.org/calendar/fifth-international-symposium-on-computational-wind-engineering-cwe2010/

Conference

Conference5th International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering (CWE 2010), May 23-27, 2010, Chapel Hill, N.C., USA
Abbreviated titleCWE2010
CountryUnited States
CityChapel Hill
Period23/05/1027/05/10
Other5th International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering
Internet address

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Stadiums
Sports
Rain
Numerical analysis
Geometry
Roofs
Flow patterns
Computational fluid dynamics
Trajectories
Computer simulation

Cite this

van Hooff, T., Harten, van, M., & Blocken, B. J. E. (2010). Numerical analysis of wind-driven rain shelter in sports stadia for different stadium geometries. In 5th International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering, 23-27 May 2010, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA (pp. 1-8)
van Hooff, T. ; Harten, van, M. ; Blocken, B.J.E. / Numerical analysis of wind-driven rain shelter in sports stadia for different stadium geometries. 5th International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering, 23-27 May 2010, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. 2010. pp. 1-8
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van Hooff, T, Harten, van, M & Blocken, BJE 2010, Numerical analysis of wind-driven rain shelter in sports stadia for different stadium geometries. in 5th International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering, 23-27 May 2010, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. pp. 1-8, 5th International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering (CWE 2010), May 23-27, 2010, Chapel Hill, N.C., USA, Chapel Hill, United States, 23/05/10.

Numerical analysis of wind-driven rain shelter in sports stadia for different stadium geometries. / van Hooff, T.; Harten, van, M.; Blocken, B.J.E.

5th International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering, 23-27 May 2010, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. 2010. p. 1-8.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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AB - Sports stadia are increasingly used to host a wide variety of activities that attract large attendances, ranging from sports matches to concerts, festivities and conferences. One of the crucial aspects of spectator comfort in open stadia is protection from wind and rain. However, in many stadia this part of spectator comfort is insufficiently taken care of. The main reason is that stadia and stadium roofs are often designed with only vertical rainfall in mind, neglecting the influence of wind that can sweep the rain onto the stands. This wind-driven rain (WDR) can reach a large area of the stand underneath the roof, resulting in discomfort for the spectators in this area. This paper presents 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of WDR shelter for 12 different generic stadia configurations that are representative for a wide range of existing stadia. The wind-flow patterns are determined by steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navi-er-Stokes (RANS) simulations, after which the WDR trajectories are calculated using Lagrangian particle tracking. This study demonstrates the influence of both stand arrangement and roof slope on the area of the stand that is wetted by WDR. It shows the importance of taking into account WDR in the stadium design process, and it provides some design guidelines to avoid this type of spectator discomfort.

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van Hooff T, Harten, van M, Blocken BJE. Numerical analysis of wind-driven rain shelter in sports stadia for different stadium geometries. In 5th International Symposium on Computational Wind Engineering, 23-27 May 2010, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. 2010. p. 1-8