Nucleotide excision repair and human syndromes

Jan De Boer, Jan H.J. Hoeijmakers

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

530 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

DNA damage is implicated in cancer and aging, and several DNA repair mechanisms exist that safeguard the genome from these deleterious consequences. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes a wide diversity of lesions, the main of which include UV-induced lesions, bulky chemical adducts and some forms of oxidative damage. The NER process involves the action of at least 30 proteins in a 'cut-and-paste'-like mechanism. The consequences of a defect in one of the NER proteins are apparent from three rare recessive syndromes: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS) and the photosensitive form of the brittle hair disorder trichothiodystrophy (TTD). Sun-sensitive skin is associated with skin cancer predisposition in the case of XP, but remarkably not in CS and TTD. Moreover, the spectrum of clinical symptoms differs considerably between the three syndromes. CS and TTD patients exhibit a spectrum of neurodevelopmental abnormalities and, in addition, TTD is associated with ichthyosis and brittle hair. These typical CS and TTD abnormalities are difficult to comprehend as a consequence of defective NER. This review briefly describes the biochemistry of the NER process, summarizes the clinical features of the NER disorders and speculates on the molecular basis underlying these pleitropic syndromes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-460
Number of pages8
JournalCarcinogenesis
Volume21
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2000
Externally publishedYes

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