Non-zero intercept frequency : an accurate method to determine the integral temperature of li-ion batteries

L.H.J. Raijmakers, D.L. Danilov, J. van Lammeren, T. Lammers, H.J. Bergveld, P.H.L. Notten

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A new impedance-based approach is introduced
in which the integral battery temperature is related to other
frequencies than the recently developed zero-intercept frequency
(ZIF). The advantage of the proposed non-zero-intercept frequency
(NZIF) method is that measurement interferences,
resulting from the current flowing through the battery (pack),
can be avoided at these frequencies. This gives higher signal-to-noise
ratios (SNR) and, consequently, more accurate temperature
measurements. A theoretical analysis, using an equivalent circuit
model of a Li-ion battery, shows that NZIFs are temperature
dependent in a way similar to the ZIF and can therefore also
be used as a battery temperature indicator. To validate the
proposed method impedance measurements have been performed
with individual LiFePO4 batteries and with large LiFePO4
battery packs tested in a full electric vehicle under driving
conditions. The measurement results show that the NZIF is
clearly dependent on the integral battery temperature and reveals
a similar behavior to that of the ZIF method. This makes it
possible to optimally adjust the NZIF method to frequencies with
the highest SNR.
LanguageEnglish
Pages3168-3178
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Volume63
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

Fingerprint

Signal to noise ratio
Temperature
Electric vehicles
Temperature measurement
Equivalent circuits
Lithium-ion batteries

Keywords

  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • Integral battery temperature
  • Lithium batteries
  • Non-zero intercept frequency
  • Sensorless temperature measurement

Cite this

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title = "Non-zero intercept frequency : an accurate method to determine the integral temperature of li-ion batteries",
abstract = "A new impedance-based approach is introducedin which the integral battery temperature is related to otherfrequencies than the recently developed zero-intercept frequency(ZIF). The advantage of the proposed non-zero-intercept frequency(NZIF) method is that measurement interferences,resulting from the current flowing through the battery (pack),can be avoided at these frequencies. This gives higher signal-to-noiseratios (SNR) and, consequently, more accurate temperaturemeasurements. A theoretical analysis, using an equivalent circuitmodel of a Li-ion battery, shows that NZIFs are temperaturedependent in a way similar to the ZIF and can therefore alsobe used as a battery temperature indicator. To validate theproposed method impedance measurements have been performedwith individual LiFePO4 batteries and with large LiFePO4battery packs tested in a full electric vehicle under drivingconditions. The measurement results show that the NZIF isclearly dependent on the integral battery temperature and revealsa similar behavior to that of the ZIF method. This makes itpossible to optimally adjust the NZIF method to frequencies withthe highest SNR.",
keywords = "Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Integral battery temperature, Lithium batteries, Non-zero intercept frequency, Sensorless temperature measurement",
author = "L.H.J. Raijmakers and D.L. Danilov and {van Lammeren}, J. and T. Lammers and H.J. Bergveld and P.H.L. Notten",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1109/TIE.2016.2516961",
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}

Non-zero intercept frequency : an accurate method to determine the integral temperature of li-ion batteries. / Raijmakers, L.H.J.; Danilov, D.L.; van Lammeren, J.; Lammers, T.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.

In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 63, No. 5, 2016, p. 3168-3178.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

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AU - Raijmakers,L.H.J.

AU - Danilov,D.L.

AU - van Lammeren,J.

AU - Lammers,T.

AU - Bergveld,H.J.

AU - Notten,P.H.L.

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N2 - A new impedance-based approach is introducedin which the integral battery temperature is related to otherfrequencies than the recently developed zero-intercept frequency(ZIF). The advantage of the proposed non-zero-intercept frequency(NZIF) method is that measurement interferences,resulting from the current flowing through the battery (pack),can be avoided at these frequencies. This gives higher signal-to-noiseratios (SNR) and, consequently, more accurate temperaturemeasurements. A theoretical analysis, using an equivalent circuitmodel of a Li-ion battery, shows that NZIFs are temperaturedependent in a way similar to the ZIF and can therefore alsobe used as a battery temperature indicator. To validate theproposed method impedance measurements have been performedwith individual LiFePO4 batteries and with large LiFePO4battery packs tested in a full electric vehicle under drivingconditions. The measurement results show that the NZIF isclearly dependent on the integral battery temperature and revealsa similar behavior to that of the ZIF method. This makes itpossible to optimally adjust the NZIF method to frequencies withthe highest SNR.

AB - A new impedance-based approach is introducedin which the integral battery temperature is related to otherfrequencies than the recently developed zero-intercept frequency(ZIF). The advantage of the proposed non-zero-intercept frequency(NZIF) method is that measurement interferences,resulting from the current flowing through the battery (pack),can be avoided at these frequencies. This gives higher signal-to-noiseratios (SNR) and, consequently, more accurate temperaturemeasurements. A theoretical analysis, using an equivalent circuitmodel of a Li-ion battery, shows that NZIFs are temperaturedependent in a way similar to the ZIF and can therefore alsobe used as a battery temperature indicator. To validate theproposed method impedance measurements have been performedwith individual LiFePO4 batteries and with large LiFePO4battery packs tested in a full electric vehicle under drivingconditions. The measurement results show that the NZIF isclearly dependent on the integral battery temperature and revealsa similar behavior to that of the ZIF method. This makes itpossible to optimally adjust the NZIF method to frequencies withthe highest SNR.

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