A strain gradient-dependent crystal plasticity approach is presented to model the constitutive behaviour of polycrystal FCC metals under large plastic deformation. In order to be capable of predicting scale dependence, the heterogeneous deformation-induced evolution and distribution of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) are incorporated into the phenomenological continuum theory of crystal plasticity. Consequently, the resulting boundary value problem accommodates, in addition to the ordinary stress equilibrium condition, a condition which sets the additional nodal degrees of freedom, the edge and screw GND densities, proportional (in a weak sense) to the gradients of crystalline slip. Next to this direct coupling between microstructural dislocation evolutions and macroscopic gradients of plastic slip, another characteristic of the presented crystal plasticity model is the incorporation of the GND-effect, which leads to an essentially different constitutive behaviour than the statistically stored dislocation (SSD) densities. The GNDs, by their geometrical nature of locally similar signs, are expected to influence the plastic flow through a non-local back-stress measure, counteracting the resolved shear stress on the slip systems in the undeformed situation and providing a kinematic hardening contribution. Furthermore, the interactions between both SSD and GND densities are subject to the formation of slip system obstacle densities and accompanying hardening, accountable for slip resistance. As an example problem and without loss of generality, the model is applied to predict the formation of boundary layers and the accompanying size effect of a constrained strip under simple shear deformation, for symmetric double-slip conditions.