Neurophysiological correlates of dissociative symptoms

S.J.M. Kruijs, van der, N.M.G Bodde, E.C.B. Carrette, R.H.C Lazeron, K.E.J. Vonck, P.A.J.M. Boon, G.R. Langereis, P.J.M. Cluitmans, L.M.G. Feijs, P.A.M. Hofman, W.H. Backes, J.F.A. Jansen, A.P. Aldenkamp

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Abstract

Objective: Dissociation is a mental process with psychological and somatoform manifestations, which is closely related to hypnotic suggestibility and essentially shows the ability to obtain distance from reality. An increased tendency to dissociate is a frequently reported characteristic of patients with functional neurological symptoms and syndromes (FNSS), which account for a substantial part of all neurological admissions. This review aims to investigate what heart rate variability (HRV), EEG and neuroimaging data (MRI) reveal about the nature of dissociation and related conditions. Methods: Studies reporting HRV, EEG and neuroimaging data related to hypnosis, dissociation and FNSS were identified by searching the electronic databases Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Results: The majority of the identified studies concerned the physiological characteristics of hypnosis; relatively few investigations on dissociation related FNSS were identified. General findings were increased parasympathetic functioning during hypnosis (as measured by HRV), and lower HRV in patients with FNSS. The large variety of EEG and functional MRI investigations with diverse results challenges definite conclusions, but evidence suggests that subcortical as well as (pre)frontal regions serve emotion regulation in dissociative conditions. Functional connectivity analyses suggest the presence of altered brain networks in patients with FNSS, in which limbic areas have an increased influence on motor preparatory regions. Conclusions: HRV, EEG and (functional) MRI are sensitive methods to detect physiological changes related to dissociation and dissociative disorders such as FNSS, and can possibly provide more information about their aetiology. The use of such measures could eventually provide biomarkers for earlier identification of patients at risk and appropriate treatment of dissociative conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174-179
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry
Volume85
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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Dissociative Disorders
Heart Rate
Hypnosis
Electroencephalography
Neuroimaging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Mental Processes
Aptitude
Hypnotics and Sedatives
PubMed
Emotions
Biomarkers
Databases
Psychology
Brain

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Kruijs, van der, S.J.M. ; Bodde, N.M.G ; Carrette, E.C.B. ; Lazeron, R.H.C ; Vonck, K.E.J. ; Boon, P.A.J.M. ; Langereis, G.R. ; Cluitmans, P.J.M. ; Feijs, L.M.G. ; Hofman, P.A.M. ; Backes, W.H. ; Jansen, J.F.A. ; Aldenkamp, A.P. / Neurophysiological correlates of dissociative symptoms. In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2014 ; Vol. 85, No. 2. pp. 174-179.
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abstract = "Objective: Dissociation is a mental process with psychological and somatoform manifestations, which is closely related to hypnotic suggestibility and essentially shows the ability to obtain distance from reality. An increased tendency to dissociate is a frequently reported characteristic of patients with functional neurological symptoms and syndromes (FNSS), which account for a substantial part of all neurological admissions. This review aims to investigate what heart rate variability (HRV), EEG and neuroimaging data (MRI) reveal about the nature of dissociation and related conditions. Methods: Studies reporting HRV, EEG and neuroimaging data related to hypnosis, dissociation and FNSS were identified by searching the electronic databases Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Results: The majority of the identified studies concerned the physiological characteristics of hypnosis; relatively few investigations on dissociation related FNSS were identified. General findings were increased parasympathetic functioning during hypnosis (as measured by HRV), and lower HRV in patients with FNSS. The large variety of EEG and functional MRI investigations with diverse results challenges definite conclusions, but evidence suggests that subcortical as well as (pre)frontal regions serve emotion regulation in dissociative conditions. Functional connectivity analyses suggest the presence of altered brain networks in patients with FNSS, in which limbic areas have an increased influence on motor preparatory regions. Conclusions: HRV, EEG and (functional) MRI are sensitive methods to detect physiological changes related to dissociation and dissociative disorders such as FNSS, and can possibly provide more information about their aetiology. The use of such measures could eventually provide biomarkers for earlier identification of patients at risk and appropriate treatment of dissociative conditions.",
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Neurophysiological correlates of dissociative symptoms. / Kruijs, van der, S.J.M.; Bodde, N.M.G; Carrette, E.C.B.; Lazeron, R.H.C; Vonck, K.E.J.; Boon, P.A.J.M.; Langereis, G.R.; Cluitmans, P.J.M.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Hofman, P.A.M.; Backes, W.H.; Jansen, J.F.A.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, Vol. 85, No. 2, 2014, p. 174-179.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Neurophysiological correlates of dissociative symptoms

AU - Kruijs, van der, S.J.M.

AU - Bodde, N.M.G

AU - Carrette, E.C.B.

AU - Lazeron, R.H.C

AU - Vonck, K.E.J.

AU - Boon, P.A.J.M.

AU - Langereis, G.R.

AU - Cluitmans, P.J.M.

AU - Feijs, L.M.G.

AU - Hofman, P.A.M.

AU - Backes, W.H.

AU - Jansen, J.F.A.

AU - Aldenkamp, A.P.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Objective: Dissociation is a mental process with psychological and somatoform manifestations, which is closely related to hypnotic suggestibility and essentially shows the ability to obtain distance from reality. An increased tendency to dissociate is a frequently reported characteristic of patients with functional neurological symptoms and syndromes (FNSS), which account for a substantial part of all neurological admissions. This review aims to investigate what heart rate variability (HRV), EEG and neuroimaging data (MRI) reveal about the nature of dissociation and related conditions. Methods: Studies reporting HRV, EEG and neuroimaging data related to hypnosis, dissociation and FNSS were identified by searching the electronic databases Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Results: The majority of the identified studies concerned the physiological characteristics of hypnosis; relatively few investigations on dissociation related FNSS were identified. General findings were increased parasympathetic functioning during hypnosis (as measured by HRV), and lower HRV in patients with FNSS. The large variety of EEG and functional MRI investigations with diverse results challenges definite conclusions, but evidence suggests that subcortical as well as (pre)frontal regions serve emotion regulation in dissociative conditions. Functional connectivity analyses suggest the presence of altered brain networks in patients with FNSS, in which limbic areas have an increased influence on motor preparatory regions. Conclusions: HRV, EEG and (functional) MRI are sensitive methods to detect physiological changes related to dissociation and dissociative disorders such as FNSS, and can possibly provide more information about their aetiology. The use of such measures could eventually provide biomarkers for earlier identification of patients at risk and appropriate treatment of dissociative conditions.

AB - Objective: Dissociation is a mental process with psychological and somatoform manifestations, which is closely related to hypnotic suggestibility and essentially shows the ability to obtain distance from reality. An increased tendency to dissociate is a frequently reported characteristic of patients with functional neurological symptoms and syndromes (FNSS), which account for a substantial part of all neurological admissions. This review aims to investigate what heart rate variability (HRV), EEG and neuroimaging data (MRI) reveal about the nature of dissociation and related conditions. Methods: Studies reporting HRV, EEG and neuroimaging data related to hypnosis, dissociation and FNSS were identified by searching the electronic databases Pubmed and ScienceDirect. Results: The majority of the identified studies concerned the physiological characteristics of hypnosis; relatively few investigations on dissociation related FNSS were identified. General findings were increased parasympathetic functioning during hypnosis (as measured by HRV), and lower HRV in patients with FNSS. The large variety of EEG and functional MRI investigations with diverse results challenges definite conclusions, but evidence suggests that subcortical as well as (pre)frontal regions serve emotion regulation in dissociative conditions. Functional connectivity analyses suggest the presence of altered brain networks in patients with FNSS, in which limbic areas have an increased influence on motor preparatory regions. Conclusions: HRV, EEG and (functional) MRI are sensitive methods to detect physiological changes related to dissociation and dissociative disorders such as FNSS, and can possibly provide more information about their aetiology. The use of such measures could eventually provide biomarkers for earlier identification of patients at risk and appropriate treatment of dissociative conditions.

U2 - 10.1136/jnnp-2012-302905

DO - 10.1136/jnnp-2012-302905

M3 - Article

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JO - Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry

JF - Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry

SN - 0022-3050

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