Network modelling of dry-type transformer cooling systems

Andrea Cremasco, Wei Wu, Andreas Blaszczyk, Bogdan Cranganu-Cretu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The application of dry-type transformers is growing in the market because the technology is non-flammable, safer and environmentally friendly. However, the unit dimensions are normally larger and material costs become higher, as no oil is present for dielectric insulation or cooling. At designing stage, a transformer thermal model used for predicting temperature rise is fundamental and the modelling of cooling system is particularly important. This paper aims to describe a thermal model used to compute dry transformers with different cooling system configurations. Design/methodology/approach: The paper introduces a fast-calculating thermal and pressure network model for dry-transformer cooling systems, preliminarily verified by analytical methods and advanced CFD simulations, and finally validated with experimental results. Findings: This paper provides an overview of the network model of dry-transformer cooling system, describing its topology and its main variants including natural or forced ventilation, with or without cooling duct in the core, enclosure with roof and floor ventilation openings and air barriers. Finally, it presents a formulation for the new heat exchanger element. Originality/value: The network approach presented in this paper allows to model efficiently the cooling system of dry-type transformers. This model is based on physical principles rather than empirical assessments that are valid only for specific transformer technologies. In comparison with CFD simulation approach, the network model runs much faster and the accuracies still fall in acceptable range; therefore, one is able to utilize this method in optimization procedures included in transformer design systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1039-1053
Number of pages15
JournalCOMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Cooling systems
  • Heat transfer
  • Network model
  • Thermal modelling
  • Transformers


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