Nanophotonic integrated active-passive InP membrane devices and circuits fabricated using ArF scanner lithography

Aleksandr Zozulia (Corresponding author), Jeroen Bolk, P.J. (René) van Veldhoven, Gleb Nazarikov, Vadim G. Pogoretskiy , Samir Rihani, Graham Berry, Kevin A. Williams, Yuqing Jiao

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We present a novel fabrication approach to an integrated nanophotonic platform, based on a III-V membrane bonded to a Si substrate with benzocyclobutene (BCB). The process incorporates a hybrid lithography strategy combining deep-UV and electron-beam lithography on the same wafer. We report for the first time the usage of deep-UV scanner lithography for the fabrication of the active-passive tapers and sub-micron waveguides on the same wafer, which enables better critical dimension control, uniformity, and reproducibility. The platform uses an active-passive butt-joint interface and includes components such as distributed feedback (DFB) and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers, electro-optical (EO) and electro-absorption (EA) modulators, and sub-micron ultra-confined passive waveguides, all monolithically integrated into a single membrane layer. The active devices have a heat sink achieved by ultra-thin BCB bonding. Lasers demonstrate up to 26 mW of optical power in the waveguide and a direct modulation bandwidth of up to 21 GHz. The modulators show static extinction up to 28.8 dB.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100258
Number of pages9
JournalMicro and Nano Engineering
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


This work was supported by Huawei research grant HDMI and the Dutch NWO Zwaartekracht Grant \u201CResearch Center for Integrated Nanophotonics\u201D. The authors would like to thank Nanolab @TU/e for access to the fabrication facilities and Richard Schatz from KTH Stockholm for the LaserMatrix software which was used for laser design.

FundersFunder number
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek


    • DFB lasers
    • Electro-optical modulators
    • InP membrane
    • Photonic integration
    • Scanner lithography


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