Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash Fines: Transformation into a Minor Additional Constituent for Cements

Katrin Schollbach, Ekaterina Loginova (Corresponding author), M. Proskurnin, H.J.H. (Jos) Brouwers

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29 Citations (Scopus)
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Increasing amounts of waste are incinerated every year; therefore, the amount of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash (MSWI BA) also increases. At the same time, limited landfill space and the goal of achieving a circular economy dictate the search for MSWI BA applications. Large fractions are successfully used to replace aggregates in concrete, but the MSWI BA fraction < 3 mm has several disadvantages, such as high porosity and high contamination that make its application as aggregate or cement replacement difficult. However, finding a tailored treatment can turn these fines into a potential filler material (Minor Additional Constituent, MAC, 5% w/w) in Portland cement. This paper investigates milled fines that were produced out of MSWI BA fines (0.125–3 mm) to match the size distribution of CEM I 52.5 R and CEM I 42.5 N. They are also compared to the untreated fines (< 0.125 mm) from the same MSWI BA. The influence of milling on the fines was investigated by SEM (morphological analysis) and the leaching test to assess the potential environmental impact. Studied by isothermal calorimetry, the effect of the designed fines on cement hydration appears to be very small and the results for the mechanical performance of mortars show that all fines examined in the study might be considered as potential MACs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number105354
Pages (from-to)105354
Number of pages10
JournalResources, Conservation and Recycling
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


The authors express their gratitude to Veronica Caprai (TU/e Eindhoven) for her great advice in designing the experiment, and to Marcel Bruin (ENCI), and Arno Keulen (Mineralz) for providing the materials for this study. The authors express their gratitude to the NWO/TTW-foundation (project 13318, Development of eco-concretes by using industrial by-products), Mineralz, ENCI, Attero, v.d. Bosch Beton, Struyk Verwo, and CRH Europe Sustainable Concrete centre for their provision of material, knowledge, and financial support in this project, as well as to the Cement-Concrete-Immobilisates sponsor group at TU Eindhoven: Rijkswaterstaat Grote Projecten en Onderhoud, Graniet-Import Benelux, Kijlstra Betonmortel, Rijkswaterstaat Zee en Delta - District Noord, BTE, Selor, GMB, Geochem Research, Icopal, BN International, Eltomation, Knauf Gips, Hess AAC Systems, Kronos, Joma, Cement&BetonCentrum, Heros, Inashco.

FundersFunder number
Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat
Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek


    • Cement replacement
    • Filler
    • MSWI bottom ash
    • Minor additional constituent
    • Mortars
    • Treatment


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