Multiple levels in job demands-resources theory: implications for employee well-being and performance

Arnold B. Bakker, E. Demerouti

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

12542 Downloads (Pure)


This chapter uses the most recent version of Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory to explain how working conditions influence employees, and how employees influence their own working conditions. We show how employee self-undermining activates a loss cycle of job demands, strain, and negative behaviors over time, whereas employee job crafting activates a gain cycle of job resources, work engagement, and positive behaviors. Moreover, we argue that employee well-being and organizational behavior is a function of factors located at different levels (i.e. organization, team, individual level), which influence each other within and over time. We propose cross-level interaction effects of organization-level initiatives and leader/employee behaviors on team and individual well-being and performance. Although JD-R theory provides answers to many questions regarding employee well-being and performance, we discuss several issues that deserve research attention. The chapter closes with practical implications. We discuss how managers and supervisors can help employees to avoid health problems and flourish at work.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of well-being
EditorsE. Diener, S. Oishi, L. Tay
PublisherNoba Scholar
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 2018


Dive into the research topics of 'Multiple levels in job demands-resources theory: implications for employee well-being and performance'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this