Multiparametric ultrasound: Evaluation of greyscale, shear wave elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound for prostate cancer detection and localization in correlation to radical prostatectomy specimens

Christophe K. Mannaerts, Rogier R. Wildeboer, Arnoud W. Postema, Johanna Hagemann, Lars Budäus, Derya Tilki, Massimo Mischi, Hessel Wijkstra, Georg Salomon

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Abstract

Background: The diagnostic pathway for prostate cancer (PCa) is advancing towards an imaging-driven approach. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, although increasingly used, has not shown sufficient accuracy to replace biopsy for now. The introduction of new ultrasound (US) modalities, such as quantitative contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) and shear wave elastography (SWE), shows promise but is not evidenced by sufficient high quality studies, especially for the combination of different US modalities. The primary objective of this study is to determine the individual and complementary diagnostic performance of greyscale US (GS), SWE, CEUS and their combination, multiparametric ultrasound (mpUS), for the detection and localization of PCa by comparison with corresponding histopathology. Methods/design: In this prospective clinical trial, US imaging consisting of GS, SWE and CEUS with quantitative mapping on 3 prostate imaging planes (base, mid and apex) will be performed in 50 patients with biopsy-proven PCa before planned radical prostatectomy using a clinical ultrasound scanner. All US imaging will be evaluated by US readers, scoring the four quadrants of each imaging plane for the likelihood of significant PCa based on a 1 to 5 Likert Scale. Following resection, PCa tumour foci will be identified, graded and attributed to the imaging-derived quadrants in each prostate plane for all prostatectomy specimens. Primary outcome measure will be the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of each US modality and mpUS to detect and localize significant PCa evaluated for different Likert Scale thresholds using receiver operating characteristics curve analyses. Discussion: In the evaluation of new PCa imaging modalities, a structured comparison with gold standard radical prostatectomy specimens is essential as first step. This trial is the first to combine the most promising ultrasound modalities into mpUS. It complies with the IDEAL stage 2b recommendations and will be an important step towards the evaluation of mpUS as a possible option for accurate detection and localization of PCa. Trial registration: The study protocol for multiparametric ultrasound was prospectively registered on Clinicaltrials.gov on 14 March 2017 with the registry name 'Multiparametric Ultrasound-Study for the Detection of Prostate Cancer' and trial registration number NCT03091231

Original languageEnglish
Article number98
Number of pages10
JournalBMC Urology
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Nov 2018

Keywords

  • Accuracy
  • Detection
  • Imaging
  • Multiparametric
  • Prostate cancer
  • Radical prostatectomy
  • Ultrasound
  • Image-Guided Biopsy/methods
  • Prospective Studies
  • Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods
  • Humans
  • Prostatectomy/methods
  • Male
  • Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging

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