Five fluorene-based co-oligomers have been prepared to study their self-assembly in a wide range of concentrations, from dilute solutions to the solid state. Subtle changes to the chemical structures, introduced to tune the emission colours over the entire visible range, induce strong differences in aggregation behaviour. Only two of the fluorescent co-oligomer derivatives self-assemble to form soluble fibrils from which fluorescent organogels emerge at higher concentrations. In contrast, the other compounds form precipitates. Mixed fluorescent co-oligomer systems exhibit partial energy transfer, which allows the creation of white-light-emitting gels. Finally, a mechanism for the hierarchical self-assembly of this class of materials is proposed based on experimental results and molecular modelling calculations. © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.