The length scales involved in the development of diffuse axonal injury typically range from the head level (i.e., mechanical loading) to the cellular level. The parts of the brain that are vulnerable to this type of injury are mainly the brainstem and the corpus callosum, which are regions with highly anisotropically oriented axons. Within these parts, discrete axonal injuries occur mainly where the axons have to deviate from their main course due to the presence of an inclusion. The aim of this study is to predict axonal strains as a result of a mechanical load at the macroscopic head level. For this, a multi-scale finite element approach is adopted, in which a macro-level head model and a micro-level critical volume element are coupled. The results show that the axonal strains cannot be trivially correlated to the tissue strain without taking into account the axonal orientations, which indicates that the heterogeneities at the cellular level play an important role in brain injury and reliable predictions thereof. In addition to the multi-scale approach, it is shown that a novel anisotropic equivalent strain measure can be used to assess these micro-scale effects from head-level simulations only.
Cloots, R. J. H., Dommelen, van, J. A. W., Kleiven, S., & Geers, M. G. D. (2013). Multi-scale mechanics of traumatic brain injury : predicting axonal strains from head loads. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, 12(1), 137-150. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10237-012-0387-6