In the past decades, considerable progress had been made in bridging the mechanics of materials to other disciplines, e.g. downscaling to the field of materials science or upscaling to the field of structural engineering. Within this wide context, this paper reviews the state-of-the-art of a particular, yet powerful, method, i.e. computational homogenization. The paper discusses the main trends since the early developments of this approach up to the ongoing contributions and upcoming challenges in the field. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.