MRI-based quantification of outflow boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics of stenosed human carotid arteries

H.C. Groen, L. Simons, Q.J. Bouwhuijsen, van den, E.M.H. Bosboom, F.J.H. Gijsen, A.G. Giessen, van der, F.N. Vosse, van de, A. Hofman, A.F.W. Steen, van der, J.C.M. Witteman, A. Lugt, van der, J.J. Wentzel

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Abstract

Accurate assessment of wall shear stress (WSS) is vital for studies on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. WSS distributions can be obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) using patient-specific geometries and flow measurements. If patient-specific flow measurements are unavailable, in- and outflow have to be estimated, for instance by using Murray’s Law. It is currently unknown to what extent this law holds for carotid bifurcations, especially in cases where stenoses are involved. We performed flow measurements in the carotid bifurcation using phase-contrast MRI in patients with varying degrees of stenosis. An empirical relation between outflow and degree of area stenosis was determined and the outflow measurements were compared to estimations based on Murray’s Law. Furthermore, the influence of outflow conditions on the WSS distribution was studied. For bifurcations with an area stenosis smaller than 65%, the outflow ratio of the internal carotid artery (ICA) to the common carotid artery (CCA) was 0.62±0.12 while the outflow ratio of the external carotid artery (ECA) was 0.35±0.13. If the area stenosis was larger than 65%, the flow to the ICA decreased linearly to zero at 100% area stenosis. The empirical relation fitted the flow data well (R2=0.69), whereas Murray’s Law overestimated the flow to the ICA substantially for larger stenosis, resulting in an overestimation of the WSS. If patient-specific flow measurements of the carotid bifurcation are unavailable, estimation of the outflow ratio by the presented empirical relation will result in a good approximation of calculated WSS using CFD.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2332-2338
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Volume43
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

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Hydrodynamics
Carotid Arteries
Magnetic resonance imaging
Shear stress
Flow measurement
Pathologic Constriction
Computational fluid dynamics
Boundary conditions
Internal Carotid Artery
Stress concentration
Bifurcation (mathematics)
External Carotid Artery
Common Carotid Artery
Atherosclerosis
Geometry

Cite this

Groen, H.C. ; Simons, L. ; Bouwhuijsen, van den, Q.J. ; Bosboom, E.M.H. ; Gijsen, F.J.H. ; Giessen, van der, A.G. ; Vosse, van de, F.N. ; Hofman, A. ; Steen, van der, A.F.W. ; Witteman, J.C.M. ; Lugt, van der, A. ; Wentzel, J.J. / MRI-based quantification of outflow boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics of stenosed human carotid arteries. In: Journal of Biomechanics. 2010 ; Vol. 43, No. 12. pp. 2332-2338.
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title = "MRI-based quantification of outflow boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics of stenosed human carotid arteries",
abstract = "Accurate assessment of wall shear stress (WSS) is vital for studies on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. WSS distributions can be obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) using patient-specific geometries and flow measurements. If patient-specific flow measurements are unavailable, in- and outflow have to be estimated, for instance by using Murray’s Law. It is currently unknown to what extent this law holds for carotid bifurcations, especially in cases where stenoses are involved. We performed flow measurements in the carotid bifurcation using phase-contrast MRI in patients with varying degrees of stenosis. An empirical relation between outflow and degree of area stenosis was determined and the outflow measurements were compared to estimations based on Murray’s Law. Furthermore, the influence of outflow conditions on the WSS distribution was studied. For bifurcations with an area stenosis smaller than 65{\%}, the outflow ratio of the internal carotid artery (ICA) to the common carotid artery (CCA) was 0.62±0.12 while the outflow ratio of the external carotid artery (ECA) was 0.35±0.13. If the area stenosis was larger than 65{\%}, the flow to the ICA decreased linearly to zero at 100{\%} area stenosis. The empirical relation fitted the flow data well (R2=0.69), whereas Murray’s Law overestimated the flow to the ICA substantially for larger stenosis, resulting in an overestimation of the WSS. If patient-specific flow measurements of the carotid bifurcation are unavailable, estimation of the outflow ratio by the presented empirical relation will result in a good approximation of calculated WSS using CFD.",
author = "H.C. Groen and L. Simons and {Bouwhuijsen, van den}, Q.J. and E.M.H. Bosboom and F.J.H. Gijsen and {Giessen, van der}, A.G. and {Vosse, van de}, F.N. and A. Hofman and {Steen, van der}, A.F.W. and J.C.M. Witteman and {Lugt, van der}, A. and J.J. Wentzel",
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Groen, HC, Simons, L, Bouwhuijsen, van den, QJ, Bosboom, EMH, Gijsen, FJH, Giessen, van der, AG, Vosse, van de, FN, Hofman, A, Steen, van der, AFW, Witteman, JCM, Lugt, van der, A & Wentzel, JJ 2010, 'MRI-based quantification of outflow boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics of stenosed human carotid arteries', Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 2332-2338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.04.039

MRI-based quantification of outflow boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics of stenosed human carotid arteries. / Groen, H.C.; Simons, L.; Bouwhuijsen, van den, Q.J.; Bosboom, E.M.H.; Gijsen, F.J.H.; Giessen, van der, A.G.; Vosse, van de, F.N.; Hofman, A.; Steen, van der, A.F.W.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Lugt, van der, A.; Wentzel, J.J.

In: Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 43, No. 12, 2010, p. 2332-2338.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - MRI-based quantification of outflow boundary conditions for computational fluid dynamics of stenosed human carotid arteries

AU - Groen, H.C.

AU - Simons, L.

AU - Bouwhuijsen, van den, Q.J.

AU - Bosboom, E.M.H.

AU - Gijsen, F.J.H.

AU - Giessen, van der, A.G.

AU - Vosse, van de, F.N.

AU - Hofman, A.

AU - Steen, van der, A.F.W.

AU - Witteman, J.C.M.

AU - Lugt, van der, A.

AU - Wentzel, J.J.

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Accurate assessment of wall shear stress (WSS) is vital for studies on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. WSS distributions can be obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) using patient-specific geometries and flow measurements. If patient-specific flow measurements are unavailable, in- and outflow have to be estimated, for instance by using Murray’s Law. It is currently unknown to what extent this law holds for carotid bifurcations, especially in cases where stenoses are involved. We performed flow measurements in the carotid bifurcation using phase-contrast MRI in patients with varying degrees of stenosis. An empirical relation between outflow and degree of area stenosis was determined and the outflow measurements were compared to estimations based on Murray’s Law. Furthermore, the influence of outflow conditions on the WSS distribution was studied. For bifurcations with an area stenosis smaller than 65%, the outflow ratio of the internal carotid artery (ICA) to the common carotid artery (CCA) was 0.62±0.12 while the outflow ratio of the external carotid artery (ECA) was 0.35±0.13. If the area stenosis was larger than 65%, the flow to the ICA decreased linearly to zero at 100% area stenosis. The empirical relation fitted the flow data well (R2=0.69), whereas Murray’s Law overestimated the flow to the ICA substantially for larger stenosis, resulting in an overestimation of the WSS. If patient-specific flow measurements of the carotid bifurcation are unavailable, estimation of the outflow ratio by the presented empirical relation will result in a good approximation of calculated WSS using CFD.

AB - Accurate assessment of wall shear stress (WSS) is vital for studies on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. WSS distributions can be obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) using patient-specific geometries and flow measurements. If patient-specific flow measurements are unavailable, in- and outflow have to be estimated, for instance by using Murray’s Law. It is currently unknown to what extent this law holds for carotid bifurcations, especially in cases where stenoses are involved. We performed flow measurements in the carotid bifurcation using phase-contrast MRI in patients with varying degrees of stenosis. An empirical relation between outflow and degree of area stenosis was determined and the outflow measurements were compared to estimations based on Murray’s Law. Furthermore, the influence of outflow conditions on the WSS distribution was studied. For bifurcations with an area stenosis smaller than 65%, the outflow ratio of the internal carotid artery (ICA) to the common carotid artery (CCA) was 0.62±0.12 while the outflow ratio of the external carotid artery (ECA) was 0.35±0.13. If the area stenosis was larger than 65%, the flow to the ICA decreased linearly to zero at 100% area stenosis. The empirical relation fitted the flow data well (R2=0.69), whereas Murray’s Law overestimated the flow to the ICA substantially for larger stenosis, resulting in an overestimation of the WSS. If patient-specific flow measurements of the carotid bifurcation are unavailable, estimation of the outflow ratio by the presented empirical relation will result in a good approximation of calculated WSS using CFD.

U2 - 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.04.039

DO - 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.04.039

M3 - Article

C2 - 20627249

VL - 43

SP - 2332

EP - 2338

JO - Journal of Biomechanics

JF - Journal of Biomechanics

SN - 0021-9290

IS - 12

ER -