In this paper the effects of an upstream spatially periodic modulation acting on a turbulent Bunsen flame are investigated using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the flamelet generated manifold (FGM) method to parameterise the chemistry. The premixed Bunsen flame is spatially agitated with a set of coherent large-scale structures of specific wave-number, K. The response of the premixed flame to the external modulation is characterised in terms of time-averaged properties, e.g. the average flame height ⟨H⟩ and the flame surface wrinkling ⟨W⟩. Results show that the flame response is notably selective to the size of the length scales used for agitation. For example, both flame quantities ⟨H⟩ and ⟨W⟩ present an optimal response, in comparison with an unmodulated flame, when the modulation scale is set to relatively low wave-numbers, 4π/L ≲ K ≲ 6π/L, where L is a characteristic scale. At the agitation scales where the optimal response is observed, the average flame height, ⟨H⟩, takes a clearly defined minimal value while the surface wrinkling, ⟨W⟩, presents an increase by more than a factor of 2 in comparison with the unmodulated reference case. Combined, these two response quantities indicate that there is an optimal scale for flame agitation and intensification of combustion rates in turbulent Bunsen flames.
- large-scale modulation
- Turbulence control