Modelling the false alarm and missed detection rate for electronic watermarks

Jean Paul Linnartz, Ton Kalker, Geert Depovere

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Theoretical modeling of watermarks allow prediction of the detector reliability and facilitates the development of more reliable systems. In particular, mathematical evaluation is relevant to estimate the rate at which “false alarms” occur. In this paper, the probability of incorrect detection (missed detection or false alarm) is expressed in terms of the watermark-energy-to-image-luminance-variance ratio. We present some counterintuitive results which show for instance that the reliability of detection significantly depends on spatial correlation in watermark. Moreover we find that a small but uncompensated random DC component in the watermark can have a significant effect on the reliability.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInformation Hiding - 2nd International Workshop, IH 1998, Proceedings
EditorsD. Aucsmith
Place of PublicationBerlin
Number of pages15
ISBN (Print)3540653864, 9783540653868
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1998
Event2nd International Workshop on Information Hiding (IH 1998) - Portland, United States
Duration: 14 Apr 199817 Apr 1998
Conference number: 2

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference2nd International Workshop on Information Hiding (IH 1998)
Abbreviated titleIH 1998
Country/TerritoryUnited States


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