Modelling microwave plasmas for deposition purposes : exploring the freedom in space and chemistry

M.J. Donker, van den

Research output: ThesisPhd Thesis 1 (Research TU/e / Graduation TU/e)

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Abstract

This thesis deals with the modelling of various microwave produced plasmas that are in use for the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process in the fabrication of optical glass fibres. To that end, the platform plasimo was employed to construct a self-consistent simulation package. Several parts of plasimo have been improved, added or adjusted in order to perform these simulations. The completed simulations are valuable instruments for the analysis and optimization of the fibre production process. Microwave induced plasmas offer a manifold of novel high-tech industrial potentials. Using microwaves enables electrodeless plasma operation and has the advantage that the propagation of the waves can be modified by dielectrics and the resonator geometry like slit and chokes. Modelling microwave induced plasmas introduces several challenges. The constructed models consist of the interplay between three main modules: transport, chemistry and electromagnetic power coupling. The convective transport is modeled by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for the bulk flow, whereas the Stefan-Maxwell equations are applied to describe the diffusion of the various species with respect to the barycentric velocity. The electromagnetic energy coupling module is mainly dedicated to one specific resonator set-up. The fields in the plasma that result from an interplay between the applied field, the cavity shape, the dielectrics and the plasma are calculated self-consistently by using the Maxwell equations in the frequency domain. The resulting electric field gives the leading source term of the electron energy balance. In this resonator, the influence of dimensions and placement of features like slit and chokes are investigated. Other simulations use an approximate electromagnetic power coupling module for an axially symmetric self-guiding wave configuration; the surfatron. With respect to the chemistry, several compositions are investigated like argon and oxygen. To find a solution for the numerical difficulties we constructed a dedicated tool, PyRate, that integrates a set of equations for species concentrations in time. This gives insight in the various time constants, the main particle reservoirs and suitable initial conditions to run the two-dimensional simulations. The PyRate tool is applied to gas compositions like tetrachlorosilane and oxygen. Ultimately, the behaviour of precursors for the deposition of glass layers is investigated.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Department of Applied Physics
Supervisors/Advisors
  • van der Mullen, Joost, Promotor
  • Kroesen, Gerrit M.W., Promotor
Award date14 Apr 2008
Place of PublicationEindhoven
Publisher
Print ISBNs978-90-386-1240-9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

Fingerprint

chemistry
microwaves
chokes
modules
electromagnetism
Maxwell equation
slits
simulation
resonators
fibers
theses
gas composition
oxygen
Navier-Stokes equation
time constant
platforms
argon
vapor deposition
electron energy
cavities

Cite this

Donker, van den, M.J.. / Modelling microwave plasmas for deposition purposes : exploring the freedom in space and chemistry. Eindhoven : Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2008. 205 p.
@phdthesis{2071141b3d824b5cb16c8bebb4ca00b4,
title = "Modelling microwave plasmas for deposition purposes : exploring the freedom in space and chemistry",
abstract = "This thesis deals with the modelling of various microwave produced plasmas that are in use for the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process in the fabrication of optical glass fibres. To that end, the platform plasimo was employed to construct a self-consistent simulation package. Several parts of plasimo have been improved, added or adjusted in order to perform these simulations. The completed simulations are valuable instruments for the analysis and optimization of the fibre production process. Microwave induced plasmas offer a manifold of novel high-tech industrial potentials. Using microwaves enables electrodeless plasma operation and has the advantage that the propagation of the waves can be modified by dielectrics and the resonator geometry like slit and chokes. Modelling microwave induced plasmas introduces several challenges. The constructed models consist of the interplay between three main modules: transport, chemistry and electromagnetic power coupling. The convective transport is modeled by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for the bulk flow, whereas the Stefan-Maxwell equations are applied to describe the diffusion of the various species with respect to the barycentric velocity. The electromagnetic energy coupling module is mainly dedicated to one specific resonator set-up. The fields in the plasma that result from an interplay between the applied field, the cavity shape, the dielectrics and the plasma are calculated self-consistently by using the Maxwell equations in the frequency domain. The resulting electric field gives the leading source term of the electron energy balance. In this resonator, the influence of dimensions and placement of features like slit and chokes are investigated. Other simulations use an approximate electromagnetic power coupling module for an axially symmetric self-guiding wave configuration; the surfatron. With respect to the chemistry, several compositions are investigated like argon and oxygen. To find a solution for the numerical difficulties we constructed a dedicated tool, PyRate, that integrates a set of equations for species concentrations in time. This gives insight in the various time constants, the main particle reservoirs and suitable initial conditions to run the two-dimensional simulations. The PyRate tool is applied to gas compositions like tetrachlorosilane and oxygen. Ultimately, the behaviour of precursors for the deposition of glass layers is investigated.",
author = "{Donker, van den}, M.J.",
year = "2008",
doi = "10.6100/IR633975",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-90-386-1240-9",
publisher = "Technische Universiteit Eindhoven",
school = "Department of Applied Physics",

}

Donker, van den, MJ 2008, 'Modelling microwave plasmas for deposition purposes : exploring the freedom in space and chemistry', Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven. https://doi.org/10.6100/IR633975

Modelling microwave plasmas for deposition purposes : exploring the freedom in space and chemistry. / Donker, van den, M.J.

Eindhoven : Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2008. 205 p.

Research output: ThesisPhd Thesis 1 (Research TU/e / Graduation TU/e)

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T1 - Modelling microwave plasmas for deposition purposes : exploring the freedom in space and chemistry

AU - Donker, van den, M.J.

PY - 2008

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N2 - This thesis deals with the modelling of various microwave produced plasmas that are in use for the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process in the fabrication of optical glass fibres. To that end, the platform plasimo was employed to construct a self-consistent simulation package. Several parts of plasimo have been improved, added or adjusted in order to perform these simulations. The completed simulations are valuable instruments for the analysis and optimization of the fibre production process. Microwave induced plasmas offer a manifold of novel high-tech industrial potentials. Using microwaves enables electrodeless plasma operation and has the advantage that the propagation of the waves can be modified by dielectrics and the resonator geometry like slit and chokes. Modelling microwave induced plasmas introduces several challenges. The constructed models consist of the interplay between three main modules: transport, chemistry and electromagnetic power coupling. The convective transport is modeled by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for the bulk flow, whereas the Stefan-Maxwell equations are applied to describe the diffusion of the various species with respect to the barycentric velocity. The electromagnetic energy coupling module is mainly dedicated to one specific resonator set-up. The fields in the plasma that result from an interplay between the applied field, the cavity shape, the dielectrics and the plasma are calculated self-consistently by using the Maxwell equations in the frequency domain. The resulting electric field gives the leading source term of the electron energy balance. In this resonator, the influence of dimensions and placement of features like slit and chokes are investigated. Other simulations use an approximate electromagnetic power coupling module for an axially symmetric self-guiding wave configuration; the surfatron. With respect to the chemistry, several compositions are investigated like argon and oxygen. To find a solution for the numerical difficulties we constructed a dedicated tool, PyRate, that integrates a set of equations for species concentrations in time. This gives insight in the various time constants, the main particle reservoirs and suitable initial conditions to run the two-dimensional simulations. The PyRate tool is applied to gas compositions like tetrachlorosilane and oxygen. Ultimately, the behaviour of precursors for the deposition of glass layers is investigated.

AB - This thesis deals with the modelling of various microwave produced plasmas that are in use for the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition process in the fabrication of optical glass fibres. To that end, the platform plasimo was employed to construct a self-consistent simulation package. Several parts of plasimo have been improved, added or adjusted in order to perform these simulations. The completed simulations are valuable instruments for the analysis and optimization of the fibre production process. Microwave induced plasmas offer a manifold of novel high-tech industrial potentials. Using microwaves enables electrodeless plasma operation and has the advantage that the propagation of the waves can be modified by dielectrics and the resonator geometry like slit and chokes. Modelling microwave induced plasmas introduces several challenges. The constructed models consist of the interplay between three main modules: transport, chemistry and electromagnetic power coupling. The convective transport is modeled by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for the bulk flow, whereas the Stefan-Maxwell equations are applied to describe the diffusion of the various species with respect to the barycentric velocity. The electromagnetic energy coupling module is mainly dedicated to one specific resonator set-up. The fields in the plasma that result from an interplay between the applied field, the cavity shape, the dielectrics and the plasma are calculated self-consistently by using the Maxwell equations in the frequency domain. The resulting electric field gives the leading source term of the electron energy balance. In this resonator, the influence of dimensions and placement of features like slit and chokes are investigated. Other simulations use an approximate electromagnetic power coupling module for an axially symmetric self-guiding wave configuration; the surfatron. With respect to the chemistry, several compositions are investigated like argon and oxygen. To find a solution for the numerical difficulties we constructed a dedicated tool, PyRate, that integrates a set of equations for species concentrations in time. This gives insight in the various time constants, the main particle reservoirs and suitable initial conditions to run the two-dimensional simulations. The PyRate tool is applied to gas compositions like tetrachlorosilane and oxygen. Ultimately, the behaviour of precursors for the deposition of glass layers is investigated.

U2 - 10.6100/IR633975

DO - 10.6100/IR633975

M3 - Phd Thesis 1 (Research TU/e / Graduation TU/e)

SN - 978-90-386-1240-9

PB - Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

CY - Eindhoven

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