Modeling the butterfly: the voltammetry of ((sqrt(3)xsqrt(3))R30 and p(2x2) overlayers of (111) electrodes

M.T.M. Koper, J.J. Lukkien

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

97 Citations (Scopus)


The voltammetry of the formation of (v3×v3)R30° and p(2×2) overlayers on (111) electrodes is modeled by analytical and Monte Carlo techniques. Both ordered structures are formed by second-order order–disorder phase transitions that lead to sharply-peaked ‘butterfly’ features in the voltammogram. The butterflies for both systems are, however, distinctly different and resemble the voltammetry of Pt(111) in sulfuric and perchloric acid, respectively, even though the simulated adlayer structures are not exactly the same as the experimental ones. Some general features of butterfly peaks in voltammetry and their implications are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-165
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Electroanalytical Chemistry
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2000


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