Modeling foam growth in semi-crystalline thermoplastics

C.F.J. Den Doelder, R.L. Sammler, R.J. Koopmans, A.N. Paquet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The accurate description of the rapidly changing viscoelastic character of the gas-laden polymer melt during the expansion phase of foam development is one of the main challenges in modeling thermoplastic foam processing. A general model addressing this challenge for amorphous and semi-crystalline polymers is presented here. Key model elements include the capturing of strain hardening in extensional flow and flow-induced crystallization. The extensional rheology is modeled using the Lodge constitutive equation. The crystallization is modeled using the Avrami equation enhanced with a flow-induced Jay-factor. The model is applied to two isotactic polypropylene materials. The results show the complex non-linearity of foam expansion. The calculated foaming window is in good agreement with experimental data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-116
Number of pages18
JournalCellular Polymers
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


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