Modeling & analysis of an LTE-advanced receiver using mode-controlled dataflow

H.L. Salunkhe, Orlando Moreira, C.H. van Berkel

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Current multi-functional embedded systems such as smartphones and tablets support multiple 2G/3G/4G radio standards including Long Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced. LTE-Advanced is the latest industry standard that improves upon LTE by introducing several feature-rich and complex improvements. Moreover, both LTE and LTE-Advanced have real-time requirements. LTE and LTE-Advanced receivers are typically scheduled on a heterogeneous multi-core processor to satisfy real-time and low-power requirements.

Manual simulation-based real-time analysis of such applications is infeasible. Dataflow can be used for real-time analysis. Static dataflow allows a rich set of analysis techniques to support real-time scheduling, but is too restrictive to accurately and conveniently model the dynamic data-dependent behavior for many practical applications, including LTE-Advanced. Dynamic dataflow allows modeling of such applications, but in general does not support rigorous real-time analysis.

Mode-controlled Dataflow (MCDF) is a restricted form of dynamic dataflow that captures realistic features in such applications and allows rigorous timing analysis. We stepwise refine and develop complete and fine-grained MCDF models of an LTE-Advanced receiver that include two key features: 1) carrier aggregation and 2) enhanced physical downlink control channel processing. We schedule the MCDF models on an industrial platform to benchmark them against (static) Single-rate Dataflow (SRDF) using existing buffer allocation techniques to demonstrate that these models are analyzable and practically applicable. Moreover, we also develop latency analysis techniques for single-rate and mode-controlled dataflow. For our LTE-Advanced receiver, relative to SRDF models, MCDF models offer 1) up to 15% smaller memory consumption, and 2) up to 1.6% smaller LTE-Advanced sub-frame processing latency.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)216-230
Number of pages15
JournalMicroprocessors and Microsystems
Issue numberPart A
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2016


  • LTE
  • LTE-Advanced
  • Mode-controlled dataflow
  • Dataflow modeling


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