Mode-controlled data-flow modeling of real-time memory controllers

Y. Li, H. Salunkhe, J. Nogueira Bastos, O. Moreira, B. Akesson, K.G.W. Goossens

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


SDRAM is a shared resource in modern multi-core platforms executing multiple real-time (RT) streaming applications. It is crucial to analyze the minimum guaranteed SDRAM bandwidth to ensure that the requirements of the RT streaming applications are always satisfied. However, deriving the worstcase bandwidth (WCBW) is challenging because of the diverse memory traffic with variable transaction sizes. In fact, existing RT memory controllers either do not efficiently support variable transaction sizes or do not provide an analysis to tightly bound WCBW in their presence. We propose a new mode-controlled data-flow (MCDF) model to capture the command scheduling dependencies of memory transactions with variable sizes. The WCBW can be obtained by employing an existing tool to automatically analyze our MCDF model rather than using existing static analysis techniques, which in contrast to our model are hard to extend to cover different RT memory controllers. Moreover, the MCDF analysis can exploit static information about known transaction sequences provided by the applications or by the memory arbiter. Experimental results show that 77% improvement of WCBW can be achieved compared to the case without known transaction sequences. In addition, the results demonstrate that the proposed MCDF model outperforms state-of-the-art analysis approaches and improves the WCBW by 22% without known transaction sequences.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationESTIMedia 2015 - 13th IEEE Symposium on Embedded Systems for Real-Time Multimedia
Place of PublicationPiscataway
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
ISBN (Electronic)9781467381642
Publication statusPublished - 9 Dec 2015
Event13th IEEE Symposium on Embedded Systems for Real-Time Multimedia (ESTIMedia 2015) - Amsterdam, Netherlands
Duration: 8 Oct 20159 Oct 2015
Conference number: 13


Conference13th IEEE Symposium on Embedded Systems for Real-Time Multimedia (ESTIMedia 2015)
Abbreviated titleESTIMedia 2015
Internet address


  • Analytical models
  • Bandwidth
  • Computational modeling
  • Hardware
  • Real-time systems
  • Timing


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