miniPXI: Development and Validation of an Eleven-Item Measure of the Player Experience Inventory

Aqeel Haider, Casper Harteveld, Daniel Johnson, Max V. Birk, Regan L. Mandryk, Magy Seif El-Nasr, Lennart E. Nacke, Kathrin Gerling, Vero Vanden Abeele

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
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Questionnaires are vital in games user research (GUR) to assess player experience (PX). However, having too many questions in surveys prevents wider uptake among GUR professionals because of games' rapid production cycles. To address this issue, we present the miniPXI - -an eleven-item measure of the popular Player Experience Inventory (PXI) - -providing single items for each of its eleven constructs. To develop the scale and examine its reliability and validity, we present three studies, conducted with 15 experts and 628 digital game players across continents. In the first survey study (n=366, 15 experts), single items were selected. In a second survey study (n=232), we explored reliability and validity of the single-item scale. Participants completed both full and single-item (SI) variants in three days. In the last study (n=30), we established the validity and sensitivity via an experimental evaluation of two games. The results are nuanced; SI reliability estimates for PXI constructs range from .51 to .83 with an average of .68, we could confirm the validity for nine constructs. We conclude that the miniPXI can be a valuable tool for PX evaluations where a longer measure is not feasible, and provide practical considerations for its use.

Original languageEnglish
Article number244
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
JournalProceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction
Issue numberCHI PLAY
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • games user research
  • GUR
  • player experience
  • PX
  • PXI
  • questionnaire
  • reliability
  • scale
  • single-item measure
  • validation


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