Minimum lap time control of hybrid electric race cars in qualifying scenarios

Mauro Salazar, Pol Duhr, Camillo Balerna, Luca Arzilli, Christopher Onder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents models and control algorithms for the energy management of the Formula 1 race car in qualifying scenarios, whereby the car's performance is solely determined by the lap time achieved over a single lap. Specifically, we first extend an existing convex model of the Formula 1 car to include the waste-gate action, and analytically derive its lap-time-optimal control policy. Second, we combine nonlinear programming techniques with convex optimization to numerically compute the optimal solution for an out-lap-flying-lap sequence. Third, we devise equivalent lap time minimization strategies, whereby three PI controllers adapt the optimal control policy implemented on the car in real time, in order to track precomputed control strategies in a minimum-lap-time fashion. Finally, we benchmark the control algorithms presented against the optimal solution and validate their performance with high-fidelity simulations. The results obtained show the optimality and the robustness of the presented approach.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8728237
Pages (from-to)7296-7308
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • ECMS
  • Energy management
  • Formula 1
  • Hybrid electric powertrain
  • Optimal control


Dive into the research topics of 'Minimum lap time control of hybrid electric race cars in qualifying scenarios'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this