Minimizing the Interface-Driven Losses in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells and Modules

Xin Zhang, Weiming Qiu (Corresponding author), Sofia Apergi, Shivam Singh, Paulo Marchezi, Wenya Song, Christian Sternemann, Karim Elkhouly, Dong Zhang, Aranzazu Aguirre, Tamara Merckx, Anurag Krishna, Yuanyuan Shi, Andrea Bracesco, Cristian van Helvoirt, Frennie Bens, Valerio Zardetto, Jan D’Haen, Anran Yu, Geert BrocksTom Aernouts, Ellen Moons, Shuxia Tao, Yiqiang Zhan (Corresponding author), Yinghuan Kuang (Corresponding author), Jef Poortmans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

The inverted p-i-n perovskite solar cells hold high promise for scale-up toward commercialization. However, the interfaces between the perovskite and the charge transport layers contribute to major power conversion efficiency (PCE) loss and instability. Here, we use a single material of 2-thiopheneethylammonium chloride (TEACl) to molecularly engineer both the interface between the perovskite and fullerene-C60 electron transport layer and the buried interface between the perovskite and NiOx-based hole transport layer. The dual interface modification results in optimized band alignment, suppressed nonradiative recombination, and improved interfacial contact. A PCE of 24.3% is demonstrated, with open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) of 1.17 V and 84.6%, respectively. The unencapsulated device retains >97.0% of the initial performance after 1000 h of maximum power point tracking under illumination. Moreover, a PCE of 22.6% and a remarkable FF of 82.4% are obtained for a mini-module with an active area of 3.63

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2532-2542
Number of pages11
JournalACS Energy Letters
Volume8
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
X.Z., Y.K., and T.A. acknowledge the funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 850937 of the PERCISTAND project. Y.K., T.A., P.M., S.S., and E.M. acknowledge the funding from the FLAG-ERA JTC 2019 programme under Reference Number of JTC-2019-013 of the LASERGRAPH project. A.K. and T.A. acknowledge the FWO for the funding of the SBO project PROCEED (S002019N). This work is funded in part by the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences under project numbers CN18-15EE-01 and PN1734SC02. Y.Z. acknowledges the funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China under the grant number 62274040. S.T. and S.A. acknowledge funding by the NWO START-UP support from The Netherlands. C.S. acknowledges DELTA (TU Dortmund, Germany) for providing synchrotron radiation at beamline BL9. Moreover, K.E. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council under the European Horizon 2020 Programme/ERC grant agreement no. 835133 (ULTRA-LUX). We are grateful to Dr. Zafer Hawash for his contributions in the early stage of the project and Dr. Hanmin Zhang and Dr. Leif K. E. Ericsson at Karlstad University for their support with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X.Z. and Y.K. thank Dr. Nga Phung and Prof. Dr. Mariadriana Creatore at Eindhoven University of Technology for the fruitful discussion on ALD SnO2 and GIXRD results. X.Z. would like to thank Dr. Huotian Zhang from Linköping University for the fruitful discussions regarding the Voc loss analysis. C.S. would like to thank Prof. Hans-Georg Steinrück from Paderborn University and Prof. Michael Paulus from Technische Universität Dortmund for helpful discussions.

Funding Information:
X.Z., Y.K., and T.A. acknowledge the funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 850937 of the PERCISTAND project. Y.K., T.A., P.M., S.S., and E.M. acknowledge the funding from the FLAG-ERA JTC 2019 programme under Reference Number of JTC-2019-013 of the LASERGRAPH project. A.K. and T.A. acknowledge the FWO for the funding of the SBO project PROCEED (S002019N). This work is funded in part by the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences under project numbers CN18-15EE-01 and PN1734SC02. Y.Z. acknowledges the funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China under the grant number 62274040. S.T. and S.A. acknowledge funding by the NWO START-UP support from The Netherlands. C.S. acknowledges DELTA (TU Dortmund, Germany) for providing synchrotron radiation at beamline BL9. Moreover, K.E. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council under the European Horizon 2020 Programme/ERC grant agreement no. 835133 (ULTRA-LUX). We are grateful to Dr. Zafer Hawash for his contributions in the early stage of the project and Dr. Hanmin Zhang and Dr. Leif K. E. Ericsson at Karlstad University for their support with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X.Z. and Y.K. thank Dr. Nga Phung and Prof. Dr. Mariadriana Creatore at Eindhoven University of Technology for the fruitful discussion on ALD SnO and GIXRD results. X.Z. would like to thank Dr. Huotian Zhang from Linköping University for the fruitful discussions regarding the V loss analysis. C.S. would like to thank Prof. Hans-Georg Steinrück from Paderborn University and Prof. Michael Paulus from Technische Universität Dortmund for helpful discussions. 2 oc

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.

Funding

X.Z., Y.K., and T.A. acknowledge the funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 850937 of the PERCISTAND project. Y.K., T.A., P.M., S.S., and E.M. acknowledge the funding from the FLAG-ERA JTC 2019 programme under Reference Number of JTC-2019-013 of the LASERGRAPH project. A.K. and T.A. acknowledge the FWO for the funding of the SBO project PROCEED (S002019N). This work is funded in part by the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences under project numbers CN18-15EE-01 and PN1734SC02. Y.Z. acknowledges the funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China under the grant number 62274040. S.T. and S.A. acknowledge funding by the NWO START-UP support from The Netherlands. C.S. acknowledges DELTA (TU Dortmund, Germany) for providing synchrotron radiation at beamline BL9. Moreover, K.E. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council under the European Horizon 2020 Programme/ERC grant agreement no. 835133 (ULTRA-LUX). We are grateful to Dr. Zafer Hawash for his contributions in the early stage of the project and Dr. Hanmin Zhang and Dr. Leif K. E. Ericsson at Karlstad University for their support with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X.Z. and Y.K. thank Dr. Nga Phung and Prof. Dr. Mariadriana Creatore at Eindhoven University of Technology for the fruitful discussion on ALD SnO2 and GIXRD results. X.Z. would like to thank Dr. Huotian Zhang from Linköping University for the fruitful discussions regarding the Voc loss analysis. C.S. would like to thank Prof. Hans-Georg Steinrück from Paderborn University and Prof. Michael Paulus from Technische Universität Dortmund for helpful discussions. X.Z., Y.K., and T.A. acknowledge the funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 850937 of the PERCISTAND project. Y.K., T.A., P.M., S.S., and E.M. acknowledge the funding from the FLAG-ERA JTC 2019 programme under Reference Number of JTC-2019-013 of the LASERGRAPH project. A.K. and T.A. acknowledge the FWO for the funding of the SBO project PROCEED (S002019N). This work is funded in part by the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences under project numbers CN18-15EE-01 and PN1734SC02. Y.Z. acknowledges the funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China under the grant number 62274040. S.T. and S.A. acknowledge funding by the NWO START-UP support from The Netherlands. C.S. acknowledges DELTA (TU Dortmund, Germany) for providing synchrotron radiation at beamline BL9. Moreover, K.E. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council under the European Horizon 2020 Programme/ERC grant agreement no. 835133 (ULTRA-LUX). We are grateful to Dr. Zafer Hawash for his contributions in the early stage of the project and Dr. Hanmin Zhang and Dr. Leif K. E. Ericsson at Karlstad University for their support with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X.Z. and Y.K. thank Dr. Nga Phung and Prof. Dr. Mariadriana Creatore at Eindhoven University of Technology for the fruitful discussion on ALD SnO and GIXRD results. X.Z. would like to thank Dr. Huotian Zhang from Linköping University for the fruitful discussions regarding the V loss analysis. C.S. would like to thank Prof. Hans-Georg Steinrück from Paderborn University and Prof. Michael Paulus from Technische Universität Dortmund for helpful discussions. 2 oc

FundersFunder number
European Union's Horizon 2020 - Research and Innovation Framework Programme
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme850937, JTC-2019-013
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme
European Resuscitation Council835133
European Resuscitation Council
European Research Council
National Natural Science Foundation of China62274040
National Natural Science Foundation of China
Fonds Wetenschappelijk OnderzoekS002019N
Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of SciencesCN18-15EE-01, PN1734SC02
Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences
University of Paderborn

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