Microstructural modeling and measurements of anisotropic plasticity in large scale additively manufactured 316L stainless steel

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In this paper, the wire + arc additive manufacturing process-induced plastic anisotropy of 316L stainless steel is analyzed by means of detailed 3D microstructural modeling and compared to experimental tensile tests. A spatially varying representative grain texture and morphology are incorporated in a representative volume element having the size of a single fusion zone and which is generated using a 3D anisotropic Voronoi algorithm. The constitutive behavior is modeled at the grain scale by a finite element crystal plasticity framework, of which the corresponding parameters are obtained from experimental tensile tests in one of the processing directions. As a result of the spatially correlated grain orientations inside the fusion zone, distinct deformation patterns and strain localizations have been observed during experimental tensile tests. The strain fields obtained from numerical simulations are compared to the experimental deformation patterns and a remarkable correspondence is observed. Numerical simulations are also performed in various uniaxial loading directions to predict the 3D yield behavior. A strongly anisotropic plastic response is obtained and a convincing match between the numerical model and experimental tensile tests is found in various loading directions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104710
Number of pages16
JournalEuropean Journal of Mechanics. A, Solids
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was carried out under project number P16-46/S17 024e, which is part of the AiM2XL program, in the framework of the Partnership Program of the Materials innovation institute M2i (www.m2i.nl) and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (www.nwo.nl). The research was conducted in collaboration with industrial partners and supported by Rotterdam Fieldlab Additive Manufacturing BV (RAMLAB), www.ramlab.com.


  • 316L stainless steel
  • Crystal plasticity
  • Experimental characterization
  • Microstructural modeling
  • Wire + arc additive manufacturing
  • Yield stress anisotropy


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