The most important obstacle to widespread use of perovskite solar cells is their poor stability under operational stressors. Here, we systematically monitor the evolution of the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells based on formamidinium-cesium lead iodide (FA0.9Cs0.1PbI3) for 600 h, under a series of controlled operational stressors. Although these devices exhibit reasonable thermal stability, their stability under illumination or stabilized power output (SPO) is far from commercial demands. Synchrotron-based nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence and X-ray-beam-induced current measurements reveal that current-blocking Cs-rich phases segregate during stress tests. The decrease in performance is in line with the increasing density of the Cs-rich clusters in area upon illumination. Theoretical calculations indicate that light-generated carriers provide the thermodynamic driving force for that phase segregation. Our findings correlate device performance to microscopic behavior and atomistic mechanisms and shed light on inhibiting the cation-dependent phase segregation during device operation.
- density functional theory calculation
- microscopic characterization
- nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence
- perovskite solar cells
- phase segregation