Microcalcifications in atherosclerotic lesion of apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse

N. Debernardi, R.B. Roijers, R. Krams, R. Crom, de, P.H.A. Mutsaers, G.J. Vusse, van der

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Abstract

Evidence is accumulating that calcium-rich microdeposits in the vascular wall might play a crucial role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis. Here we investigated an atherosclerotic lesion of the carotid artery in an established murine model, i.e. the apolipoprotein E-deficient (APOE-/-) mouse to identify (i) the presence of microcalcifications, if any, (ii) the elemental composition of microcalcifications with special reference to calcium/phosphorus mass ratio and (iii) co-localization of increased concentrations of iron and zinc with microcalcifications. Atherosclerosis was induced by a flow-divider placed around the carotid artery resulting in low and high shear-stress regions. Element composition was assessed with a proton microprobe. Microcalcifications, predominantly present in the thickened intima of the low shear-stress region, were surrounded by areas with normal calcium levels, indicating that calcium-precipitation is a local event. The diameter of intimal microcalcifications varied from 6 to 70 µm. Calcium/phosphorus ratios of microcalcifications varied from 0.3 to 4.8, mainly corresponding to the ratio of amorphous calcium-phosphate. Increased iron and zinc concentrations commonly co-localized with microcalcifications. Our findings indicate that the atherosclerotic process in the murine carotid artery is associated with locally accumulated calcium, iron and zinc. The calcium-rich deposits resemble amorphous calcium phosphate rather than pure hydroxyapatite. We propose that the APOE-/- mouse, in which atherosclerosis was evoked by a flow-divider, offers a useful model to investigate the pathophysiological significance of accumulation of elements such as calcium, iron and zinc.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)485-494
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Experimental Pathology
Volume91
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

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