Micro and nanoscale characterization of complex multilayer-structured white etching layer in rails

Jun Wu, Roumen H. Petrov, Sebastian Kölling, Paul Koenraad, Loic Malet, Stephane Godet, Jilt Sietsma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Micro-to nano-scale characterization of the microstructures in the white etching layer (WEL), observed in a Dutch R260 Mn grade rail steel, was performed via various techniques. Retained austenite in the WEL was identified via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), automatic crystallographic orientation mapping in transmission electron microscopy (ACOM-TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). EBSD and ACOM-TEM methods were used to quantify grains (size range: 50 nm–4 µm) in the WEL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify complex heterogeneous microstructural morphologies in the WEL: Nano-twinning substructure with high dislocation density in the WEL close to the rail surface and untransformed cementite and dislocations in the WEL close to the pearlite matrix. Furthermore, atom probe tomography (APT) revealed a heterogeneous through-thickness distribution of alloying elements in the WEL. Accordingly, the WEL is considered a multi-layered martensitic microstructure. These findings are supported by the temperature calculations from the shape analysis of the manganese profile from APT measurements, related to manganese diffusion. The deformation characteristics of the WEL and the pearlite beneath the WEL are discussed based on the EBSD measurements. The role of deformation in the martensitic phase transformation for WEL formation is discussed.

LanguageEnglish
Article number749
Number of pages18
JournalMetals
Volume8
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2018

Fingerprint

rails
Rails
Etching
Multilayers
etching
Electron diffraction
pearlite
Pearlite
Manganese
Transmission electron microscopy
diffraction
transmission electron microscopy
Tomography
manganese
tomography
cementite
Atoms
microstructure
Microstructure
electrons

Keywords

  • Martensite
  • Phase transformation
  • Plastic deformation
  • Rails
  • Temperature
  • White etching layer

Cite this

Wu, Jun ; Petrov, Roumen H. ; Kölling, Sebastian ; Koenraad, Paul ; Malet, Loic ; Godet, Stephane ; Sietsma, Jilt. / Micro and nanoscale characterization of complex multilayer-structured white etching layer in rails. In: Metals. 2018 ; Vol. 8, No. 10.
@article{6e72389c7b2e44f1a5e64bbead97fd86,
title = "Micro and nanoscale characterization of complex multilayer-structured white etching layer in rails",
abstract = "Micro-to nano-scale characterization of the microstructures in the white etching layer (WEL), observed in a Dutch R260 Mn grade rail steel, was performed via various techniques. Retained austenite in the WEL was identified via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), automatic crystallographic orientation mapping in transmission electron microscopy (ACOM-TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). EBSD and ACOM-TEM methods were used to quantify grains (size range: 50 nm–4 µm) in the WEL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify complex heterogeneous microstructural morphologies in the WEL: Nano-twinning substructure with high dislocation density in the WEL close to the rail surface and untransformed cementite and dislocations in the WEL close to the pearlite matrix. Furthermore, atom probe tomography (APT) revealed a heterogeneous through-thickness distribution of alloying elements in the WEL. Accordingly, the WEL is considered a multi-layered martensitic microstructure. These findings are supported by the temperature calculations from the shape analysis of the manganese profile from APT measurements, related to manganese diffusion. The deformation characteristics of the WEL and the pearlite beneath the WEL are discussed based on the EBSD measurements. The role of deformation in the martensitic phase transformation for WEL formation is discussed.",
keywords = "Martensite, Phase transformation, Plastic deformation, Rails, Temperature, White etching layer",
author = "Jun Wu and Petrov, {Roumen H.} and Sebastian K{\"o}lling and Paul Koenraad and Loic Malet and Stephane Godet and Jilt Sietsma",
year = "2018",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/met8100749",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "Rare Metals",
issn = "1001-0521",
publisher = "University of Science and Technology Beijing",
number = "10",

}

Micro and nanoscale characterization of complex multilayer-structured white etching layer in rails. / Wu, Jun; Petrov, Roumen H.; Kölling, Sebastian; Koenraad, Paul; Malet, Loic; Godet, Stephane; Sietsma, Jilt.

In: Metals, Vol. 8, No. 10, 749, 01.10.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Micro and nanoscale characterization of complex multilayer-structured white etching layer in rails

AU - Wu,Jun

AU - Petrov,Roumen H.

AU - Kölling,Sebastian

AU - Koenraad,Paul

AU - Malet,Loic

AU - Godet,Stephane

AU - Sietsma,Jilt

PY - 2018/10/1

Y1 - 2018/10/1

N2 - Micro-to nano-scale characterization of the microstructures in the white etching layer (WEL), observed in a Dutch R260 Mn grade rail steel, was performed via various techniques. Retained austenite in the WEL was identified via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), automatic crystallographic orientation mapping in transmission electron microscopy (ACOM-TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). EBSD and ACOM-TEM methods were used to quantify grains (size range: 50 nm–4 µm) in the WEL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify complex heterogeneous microstructural morphologies in the WEL: Nano-twinning substructure with high dislocation density in the WEL close to the rail surface and untransformed cementite and dislocations in the WEL close to the pearlite matrix. Furthermore, atom probe tomography (APT) revealed a heterogeneous through-thickness distribution of alloying elements in the WEL. Accordingly, the WEL is considered a multi-layered martensitic microstructure. These findings are supported by the temperature calculations from the shape analysis of the manganese profile from APT measurements, related to manganese diffusion. The deformation characteristics of the WEL and the pearlite beneath the WEL are discussed based on the EBSD measurements. The role of deformation in the martensitic phase transformation for WEL formation is discussed.

AB - Micro-to nano-scale characterization of the microstructures in the white etching layer (WEL), observed in a Dutch R260 Mn grade rail steel, was performed via various techniques. Retained austenite in the WEL was identified via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), automatic crystallographic orientation mapping in transmission electron microscopy (ACOM-TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). EBSD and ACOM-TEM methods were used to quantify grains (size range: 50 nm–4 µm) in the WEL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify complex heterogeneous microstructural morphologies in the WEL: Nano-twinning substructure with high dislocation density in the WEL close to the rail surface and untransformed cementite and dislocations in the WEL close to the pearlite matrix. Furthermore, atom probe tomography (APT) revealed a heterogeneous through-thickness distribution of alloying elements in the WEL. Accordingly, the WEL is considered a multi-layered martensitic microstructure. These findings are supported by the temperature calculations from the shape analysis of the manganese profile from APT measurements, related to manganese diffusion. The deformation characteristics of the WEL and the pearlite beneath the WEL are discussed based on the EBSD measurements. The role of deformation in the martensitic phase transformation for WEL formation is discussed.

KW - Martensite

KW - Phase transformation

KW - Plastic deformation

KW - Rails

KW - Temperature

KW - White etching layer

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053839511&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/met8100749

DO - 10.3390/met8100749

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - Rare Metals

T2 - Rare Metals

JF - Rare Metals

SN - 1001-0521

IS - 10

M1 - 749

ER -