Mechanical Behavior of Printed Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites

Stefan Chaves Figueiredo (Corresponding author), Claudia Romero Rodríguez, Zeeshan Y. Ahmed, Derk H. Bos, Yading Xu, Theo A.M. Salet, Oguzhan Çopuroglu, Erik Schlangen, Freek P. Bos

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33 Citations (Scopus)


Extrusion based additive manufacturing of cementitious materials has demonstrated strong potential to become widely used in the construction industry. However, the use of this technique in practice is conditioned by a feasible solution to implement reinforcement in such automated process.
One of the most successful ductile materials in civil engineering, strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) have a high potential to be employed for three-dimensional printing. The match between the tailored brittle matrix and ductility of the fibres enables these composites to develop multiple cracks when loaded under tension. Using previously developed mixtures, this study
investigates the physical and mechanical performance of printed SHCC. The anisotropic behavior of the materials is explored by means of mechanical tests in several directions and micro computed tomography tests. The results demonstrated a composite showing strain hardening behavior in two
directions explained by the fibre orientation found in the printed elements. Moreover, the printing technique used also has guaranteed an enhanced bond in between the printed layers.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2253
Number of pages23
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 14 May 2020


Funding: This study was performed as part of the 2017 4.TU Lighthouse project ‘3D Concrete Printing for Structural Applications’ that was performed jointly by the Eindhoven and Delft Universities of Technology. The support of the 4.TU Federation is gratefully acknowledged. Stefan Chaves Figueiredo would like to acknowledge the funding from Science Without Borders from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development of Brazil (CNPq) (201620/2014-6). Claudia Romero Rodríguez acknowledges the financial support from the Construction Technology Research Program funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of the Korean Government under the grant 17SCIP-B103706-03. Yading Xu acknowledges the financial support from China Scholarship Council (CSC) under the grant CSC No. 201708110187. The concrete printing was performed at the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) 3D Concrete Printing (3DCP) Facility. The TU/e research program on 3DCP is co-funded by a partner group of enterprises and associations that on the date of writing consisted of (alphabetical order) Ballast Nedam, BAM Infraconsult bv, Bekaert, Concrete Valley, CRH, Cybe, Saint-Gobain Weber Beamix, SGS Intron, SKKB, Van Wijnen, Verhoeven Timmerfabriek, and Witteveen+Bos. Their support is gratefully acknowledged.

FundersFunder number
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport17SCIP-B103706-03
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico201620/2014-6
China Scholarship Council201708110187


    • 3D printing
    • Engineered cementitious composites (ECC)
    • Fibre reinforcement
    • Strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC)


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