Professional Development Schools (PDS) have been established to realise supportive and stimulating environments for practice-based research activities for both teachers and student teachers. The questions investigated in this study concerned the perceptions of experienced teachers and student teachers with respect to different aspects of practice-based research in PDS and non-PDS settings and to what degree these perceptions differed. For this purpose, the Questionnaire on Teacher Research was developed. Respondents (N = 102) were asked for their perceptions of the research environment, their research motives, the research process and perceived (learning) outcomes. The questionnaire appeared to be a valid, reliable and sensitive instrument.