Measuring presence : an overview of assessment methodologies

W.A. IJsselsteijn, H. Ridder, de, J. Freeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Downloads (Pure)


There is a clear need for a reliable. robust and valid methodology for measuring presence, defined as the sense of 'being there' in a mediated environment. In this paper we describe a number of different approaches taken to measuring presence, divided into two general categories: subjective measures and objective corroborative measures. Since presence is a subjeclive experience. the mosl direct way to assess it is through users' subjective reports. This approach has serious limitations however, and should be used judiciously. Objective measures, such as postural, physiological, or social responses 10 media. can be used to corroborate subjective measures, thereby overcoming some of their limitations. At present, the most promising direction for presence measurement is 10 develop and use an aggregate measure of presence that is comprised of both subjective and objective component", tailored 10 the specific medium under study.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-47
Number of pages11
JournalIPO Annual Progress Report
Publication statusPublished - 1999


Dive into the research topics of 'Measuring presence : an overview of assessment methodologies'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this