Meaningful Human Control over AI for Health? A Review

Eva Maria Hille (Corresponding author), Patrik Hummel, Matthias Braun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Artificial intelligence is currently changing many areas of society. Especially in health, where critical decisions are made, questions of control must be renegotiated: who is in control when an automated system makes clinically relevant decisions? Increasingly, the concept of meaningful human control (MHC) is being invoked for this purpose. However, it is unclear exactly how this concept is to be understood in health. Through a systematic review, we present the current state of the concept of MHC in health. The results show that there is not yet a robust MHC concept for health. We propose a broader understanding of MHC along three strands of action: enabling, exercising and evaluating control. Taking into account these strands of action and the established rules and processes in the different health sectors, the MHC concept needs to be further developed to avoid falling into two gaps, which we have described as theoretical and labelling gaps.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Medical Ethics
Issue numberxx
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 20 Sept 2023


  • Decision-making
  • Ethics


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