Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

R.C. Wolf, A. Ali, A. Alonso, J. Baldzuhn, C. Beidler, M. Beurskens, C. Biedermann, H.S. Bosch, S. Bozhenkov, R. Brakel, A. Dinklage, Y. Feng, G. Fuchert, J. Geiger, O. Grulke, P. Helander, M. Hirsch, U. Höfel, M. Jakubowski, J. KnauerG. Kocsis, R. König, P. Kornejew, A. Kràmer-Flecken, M. Krychowiak, M. Landreman, A. Langenberg, H. P. Laqua, S. Lazerson, H. Maaßberg, S. Marsen, M. Marushchenko, D. Moseev, H. Niemann, N. Pablant, E. Pasch, K. Rahbarnia, G. Schlisio, T. Stange, T. Sunn Pedersen, J. Svensson, T. Szepesi, H. Trimino Mora, Y. Turkin, T. Wauters, G. Weir, U. Wenzel, T. Windisch, G. Wurden, D. Zhang, I. Abramovic, S. Äkàslompolo, P. Aleynikov, K. Aleynikova, R. Alzbutas, G. Anda, T. Andreeva, E. Ascasibar, J. Assmann, S. G. Baek, M. Banduch, T. Barbui, M. Barlak, K. Baumann, W. Behr, A. Benndorf, O. Bertuch, W. Biel, D. Birus, B. Blackwell, E. Blanco, M. Blatzheim, T. Bluhm, D. Böckenhoff, P. Bolgert, M. Borchardt, V. Borsuk, J. Boscary, L. G. Böttger, H. Brand, Ch Brandt, T. Bràuer, H. Braune, S. Brezinsek, K. J. Brunner, B. Brünner, R. Burhenn, B. Buttenschön, V. Bykov, I. Calvo, B. Cannas, A. Cappa, A. Carls, L. Carraro, B. Carvalho, F. Castejon, A. Charl, F. Chernyshev, M. Cianciosa, R. Citarella, Ciupiński, G. Claps, M. Cole, M. J. Cole, F. Cordella, G. Cseh, A. Czarnecka, A. Czermak, K. Czerski, M. Czerwinski, G. Czymek, A. Da Molin, A. Da Silva, G. Dammertz, J. Danielson, A. De La Pena, S. Degenkolbe, P. Denner, D. P. Dhard, M. Dostal, M. Drevlak, P. Drewelow, Ph Drews, A. Dudek, G. Dundulis, F. Durodie, P. Van Eeten, F. Effenberg, G. Ehrke, M. Endler, D. Ennis, E. Erckmann, H. Esteban, T. Estrada, N. Fahrenkamp, J. H. Feist, J. Fellinger, H. Fernandes, W. H. Fietz, W. Figacz, J. Fontdecaba, O. Ford, T. Fornal, H. Frerichs, A. Freund, M. Führer, T. Funaba, A. Galkowski, G. Gantenbein, Y. Gao, J. García Regaña, M. Garcia-Munoz, D. Gates, G. Gawlik, B. Geiger, V. Giannella, N. Gierse, A. Gogoleva, B. Goncalves, A. Goriaev, D. Gradic, M. Grahl, J. Green, A. Grosman, H. Grote, M. Gruca, C. Guerard, L. Haiduk, X. Han, F. Harberts, J. H. Harris, H. J. Hartfuß, D. Hartmann, D. Hathiramani, B. Hein, B. Heinemann, P. Heitzenroeder, S. Henneberg, C. Hennig, J. Hernandez Sanchez, C. Hidalgo, H. Hölbe, K. P. Hollfeld, A. Hölting, D. Höschen, M. Houry, J. Howard, X. Huang, M. Huber, V. Huber, H. Hunger, K. Ida, T. Ilkei, S. Illy, B. Israeli, A. Ivanov, S. Jablonski, J. Jagielski, J. Jelonnek, H. Jenzsch, P. Junghans, J. Kacmarczyk, T. Kaliatka, J. P. Kallmeyer, U. Kamionka, R. Karalevicius, H. Kasahara, W. Kasparek, N. Kenmochi, M. Keunecke, A. Khilchenko, D. Kinna, R. Kleiber, T. Klinger, M. Knaup, Th Kobarg, F. Köchl, Y. Kolesnichenko, A. Könies, M. Köppen, J. Koshurinov, R. Koslowski, F. Köster, R. Koziol, M. Krämer, R. Krampitz, P. Kraszewsk, N. Krawczyk, T. Kremeyer, Th Krings, J. Krom, G. Krzesinski, I. Ksiazek, M. Kubkowska, G. Kühner, T. Kurki-Suonio, S. Kwak, R. Lang, S. Langish, R. Laube, C. Lechte, M. Lennartz, W. Leonhardt, L. Lewerentz, Y. Liang, Ch Linsmeier, S. Liu, J. F. Lobsien, D. Loesser, J. Loizu Cisquella, J. Lore, A. Lorenz, M. Losert, L. Lubyako, A. Lücke, A. Lumsdaine, V. Lutsenko, J. Majano-Brown, O. Marchuk, M. Mardenfeld, P. Marek, S. Massidda, S. Masuzaki, D. Maurer, K. McCarthy, P. McNeely, A. Meier, D. Mellein, B. Mendelevitch, Ph Mertens, D. Mikkelsen, O. Mishchenko, B. Missal, J. Mittelstaedt, T. Mizuuchi, A. Mollen, V. Moncada, T. Mönnich, T. Morizaki, R. Munk, S. Murakami, F. Musielok, G. Náfrádi, M. Nagel, D. Naujoks, H. Neilson, O. Neubauer, U. Neuner, T. Ngo, R. Nocentini, C. Nührenberg, J. Nührenberg, S. Obermayer, G. Offermanns, K. Ogawa, J. Ongena, J. W. Oosterbeek, G. Orozco, M. Otte, L. Pacios Rodriguez, W. Pan, N. Panadero, N. Panadero Alvarez, A. Panin, D. Papenfuß, S. Paqay, A. Pavone, E. Pawelec, G. Pelka, X. Peng, V. Perseo, B. Peterson, A. Pieper, D. Pilopp, S. Pingel, F. Pisano, B. Plaum, G. Plunk, M. Povilaitis, J. Preinhaelter, J. Proll, M. E. Puiatti, A. Puig Sitjes, F. Purps, M. Rack, S. Récsei, A. Reiman, D. Reiter, F. Remppel, S. Renard, R. Riedl, J. Riemann, S. Rimkevicius, K. Riße, A. Rodatos, H. Röhlinger, M. Romé, P. Rong, H. J. Roscher, B. Roth, L. Rudischhauser, K. Rummel, T. Rummel, A. Runov, N. Rust, L. Ryc, S. Ryosuke, R. Sakamoto, A. Samartsev, M. Sanchez, F. Sano, S. Satake, G. Satheeswaran, J. Schacht, F. Schauer, T. Scherer, A. Schlaich, K. H. Schlüter, J. Schmitt, H. Schmitz, O. Schmitz, S. Schmuck, M. Schneider, W. Schneider, M. Scholz, P. Scholz, R. Schrittwieser, M. Schröder, T. Schröder, R. Schroeder, H. Schumacher, B. Schweer, B. Shanahan, I. V. Shikhovtsev, M. Sibilia, P. Sinha, S. Siplià, J. Skodzik, C. Slaby, H. Smith, W. Spiess, D. A. Spong, A. Spring, R. Stadler, B. Standley, L. Stephey, M. Stoneking, U. Stridde, Z. Sulek, C. Surko, Y. Suzuki, V. Szabó, T. Szabolics, Z. Szökefalvi-Nagy, N. Tamura, A. Terra, J. Terry, J. Thomas, H. Thomsen, M. Thumm, C. P. Von Thun, D. Timmermann, P. Titus, K. Toi, J. M. Travere, P. Traverso, J. Tretter, H. Tsuchiya, T. Tsujimura, S. Tulipán, M. Turnyanskiy, B. Unterberg, J. Urban, E. Urbonavicius, I. Vakulchyk, S. Valet, B. Van Millingen, L. Vela, J. L. Velasco, M. Vergote, M. Vervier, N. Vianello, H. Viebke, R. Vilbrandt, A. Vorkörper, S. Wadle, F. Wagner, E. Wang, N. Wang, F. Warmer, L. Wegener, J. Weggen, Y. Wei, J. Wendorf, A. Werner, B. Wiegel, F. Wilde, E. Winkler, V. Winters, S. Wolf, J. Wolowski, A. Wright, P. Xanthopoulos, H. Yamada, I. Yamada, R. Yasuhara, M. Yokoyama, J. Zajac, M. Zarnstorff, A. Zeitler, H. Zhang, J. Zhu, M. Zilker, A. Zimbal, A. Zocco, S. Zoletnik, M. Zuin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

88 Citations (Scopus)
73 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

After completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of plasma diagnostics have been completed, allowing initial physics studies during the first operational campaign. Both in helium and hydrogen, plasma breakdown was easily achieved. Gaining experience with plasma vessel conditioning, discharge lengths could be extended gradually. Eventually, discharges lasted up to 6 s, reaching an injected energy of 4 MJ, which is twice the limit originally agreed for the limiter configuration employed during the first operational campaign. At power levels of 4 MW central electron densities reached 3 1019 m-3, central electron temperatures reached values of 7 keV and ion temperatures reached just above 2 keV. Important physics studies during this first operational phase include a first assessment of power balance and energy confinement, ECRH power deposition experiments, 2nd harmonic O-mode ECRH using multi-pass absorption, and current drive experiments using electron cyclotron current drive. As in many plasma discharges the electron temperature exceeds the ion temperature significantly, these plasmas are governed by core electron root confinement showing a strong positive electric field in the plasma centre.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102020
JournalNuclear Fusion
Volume57
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2017

    Fingerprint

Keywords

  • current drive
  • magnetic confinement
  • plasma heating
  • stellarator

Cite this

Wolf, R. C., Ali, A., Alonso, A., Baldzuhn, J., Beidler, C., Beurskens, M., ... Zuin, M. (2017). Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. Nuclear Fusion, 57(10), [102020]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-4326/aa770d