Magnetic levitation systems compared to conventional bearing systems

A. T.A. Peijnenburg, J. P.M. Vermeulen, J. van Eijk

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46 Citations (SciVal)


So far, guide ways for positioning systems (stages) in semiconductor applications are often equipped with air bearings and/or roller bearings. Although these passive bearing systems are seemingly rather cost-effective, motion performance and motion capabilities are limited compared to active systems using multiple servo loops. So far, nm-level motion performance in 6 degrees of freedom (DoF) was realized through the application of an isolated machine architecture in combination with a hybrid stage concept, i.e., by stacking an active short stroke system providing fine adjustments on top of a passive long stroke system. This paper describes the development of a full 6-DoF active positioning system with nm-level motion performance in one single (long stroke) stage, using active magnetic bearing systems. It is shown that active bearings provide interesting advantages and additional features for substrate positioning, enabling a rather simple and cost effective stage design, suitable for next generation semiconductor applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1372-1375
Number of pages4
JournalMicroelectronic Engineering
Issue number4-9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Cost effectiveness
  • Magnetic levitation
  • nm-Level positioning performance
  • Semiconductor applications


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