Magic Formula Tyre Model with Transient Properties

H.B. Pacejka, I.J.M. Besselink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

407 Citations (Scopus)
33 Downloads (Pure)


The tyre force and moment generating properties connected with the vehicle's horizontal motions are considered. Knowledge of tyre properties is necessary to properly design vehicle components and advanced control systems. For this purpose, mathematical models of the tyre are being used in vehicle simulation models. The steady-state empirical 'Magic Formula tyre model' is discussed. The aligning torque description is based on the concepts of pneumatic trail and residual torque. This facilitates its combined slip description. Following Michelin, weighting functions have been introduced to model the combined slip force generation. A full set of equations of the steady-state part of the model of the new version 'Delft Tyre 97' is presented. The non-steady state behaviour of the tyre is of importance in rapid transient maneuvres, when cornering on uneven roads and for the analysis of oscillatory braking and steering properties. A relatively simple model for longitudinal and lateral transient responses restricted to relatively low time and path frequencies is introduced.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)234-249
JournalVehicle System Dynamics
Issue numberS1
Publication statusPublished - 1997


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