Low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of 2-D MoS2: Large area, thickness control and tuneable morphology

A. Sharma, M.A. Verheijen, L. Wu, S. Karwal, V. Vandalon, H.C.M. Knoops, R.S. Sundaram, J.P. Hofmann, W.M.M. Kessels, A.A. Bol (Corresponding author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Low-temperature controllable synthesis of monolayer-to-multilayer thick MoS2 with tuneable morphology is demonstrated by using plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The characteristic self-limiting ALD growth with a growth-per-cycle of 0.1 nm per cycle and digital thickness control down to a monolayer are observed with excellent wafer scale uniformity. The as-deposited films are found to be polycrystalline in nature showing the signature Raman and photoluminescence signals for the mono-to-few layered regime. Furthermore, a transformation in film morphology from in-plane to out-of-plane orientation of the 2-dimensional layers as a function of growth temperature is observed. An extensive study based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is presented to unravel the nucleation mechanism of MoS2 on SiO2/Si substrates at 450 °C. In addition, a model elucidating the film morphology transformation (at 450 °C) is hypothesized. Finally, the out-of-plane oriented films are demonstrated to outperform the in-plane oriented films in the hydrogen evolution reaction for water splitting applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8615-8627
Number of pages13
JournalNanoscale
Volume10
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 May 2018

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