Low-temperature deposition of TiN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

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Abstract

Titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited by a plasma-assisted at. layer deposition (PA-ALD) process, based on TiCl4 precursor dosing and remote H2-N2 plasma exposure, at temps. ranging from 100 to 400 DegC. The plasma, the PA-ALD process, and the resulting TiN material properties were extensively investigated. The plasma was studied by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe, revealing an ion d. of 109 cm-3 and an electron temp. of 3.5 eV just above the substrate. Under floating conditions there is thus a considerable ion flux towards the substrate per ALD cycle with a typical ion energy of .apprx.15 eV. TiN film growth was studied by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, revealing self-limiting surface reactions for the complete temp. range. At 100 DegC the growth rate of 0.3 A/cycle was found to be significantly lower than the growth rate of 0.6 A/cycle at 400 DegC. The stoichiometry of the films varied with the plasma exposure time, while the Cl content was mostly affected by the deposition temp. (2.1 atom % at 100 DegC to 0.07 atom % at 400 DegC). Resistivities as low as 71 mW cm were obtained at a temp. of 400 DegC, while at 100 DegC a fair resistivity of 209 mW cm was reached. These results show that PA-ALD with TiCl4 and H2-N2 plasma is well suited for low-temp. deposition of high-quality TiN films. [on SciFinder (R)]
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)G956-G965
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Volume153
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006

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Titanium nitride
Atomic layer deposition
Plasmas
Ions
Temperature
Langmuir probes
Atoms
Optical emission spectroscopy
Spectroscopic ellipsometry
Surface reactions
Film growth
Substrates
Stoichiometry
titanium nitride
Materials properties
Fluxes
Electrons

Cite this

@article{76fce9b00b864e46ae82f74bc38335e4,
title = "Low-temperature deposition of TiN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition",
abstract = "Titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited by a plasma-assisted at. layer deposition (PA-ALD) process, based on TiCl4 precursor dosing and remote H2-N2 plasma exposure, at temps. ranging from 100 to 400 DegC. The plasma, the PA-ALD process, and the resulting TiN material properties were extensively investigated. The plasma was studied by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe, revealing an ion d. of 109 cm-3 and an electron temp. of 3.5 eV just above the substrate. Under floating conditions there is thus a considerable ion flux towards the substrate per ALD cycle with a typical ion energy of .apprx.15 eV. TiN film growth was studied by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, revealing self-limiting surface reactions for the complete temp. range. At 100 DegC the growth rate of 0.3 A/cycle was found to be significantly lower than the growth rate of 0.6 A/cycle at 400 DegC. The stoichiometry of the films varied with the plasma exposure time, while the Cl content was mostly affected by the deposition temp. (2.1 atom {\%} at 100 DegC to 0.07 atom {\%} at 400 DegC). Resistivities as low as 71 mW cm were obtained at a temp. of 400 DegC, while at 100 DegC a fair resistivity of 209 mW cm was reached. These results show that PA-ALD with TiCl4 and H2-N2 plasma is well suited for low-temp. deposition of high-quality TiN films. [on SciFinder (R)]",
author = "S.B.S. Heil and E. Langereis and F. Roozeboom and {Sanden, van de}, M.C.M. and W.M.M. Kessels",
year = "2006",
doi = "10.1149/1.2344843",
language = "English",
volume = "153",
pages = "G956--G965",
journal = "Journal of the Electrochemical Society",
issn = "0013-4651",
publisher = "Electrochemical Society, Inc.",
number = "11",

}

Low-temperature deposition of TiN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition. / Heil, S.B.S.; Langereis, E.; Roozeboom, F.; Sanden, van de, M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 153, No. 11, 2006, p. G956-G965.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Low-temperature deposition of TiN by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

AU - Heil, S.B.S.

AU - Langereis, E.

AU - Roozeboom, F.

AU - Sanden, van de, M.C.M.

AU - Kessels, W.M.M.

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - Titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited by a plasma-assisted at. layer deposition (PA-ALD) process, based on TiCl4 precursor dosing and remote H2-N2 plasma exposure, at temps. ranging from 100 to 400 DegC. The plasma, the PA-ALD process, and the resulting TiN material properties were extensively investigated. The plasma was studied by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe, revealing an ion d. of 109 cm-3 and an electron temp. of 3.5 eV just above the substrate. Under floating conditions there is thus a considerable ion flux towards the substrate per ALD cycle with a typical ion energy of .apprx.15 eV. TiN film growth was studied by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, revealing self-limiting surface reactions for the complete temp. range. At 100 DegC the growth rate of 0.3 A/cycle was found to be significantly lower than the growth rate of 0.6 A/cycle at 400 DegC. The stoichiometry of the films varied with the plasma exposure time, while the Cl content was mostly affected by the deposition temp. (2.1 atom % at 100 DegC to 0.07 atom % at 400 DegC). Resistivities as low as 71 mW cm were obtained at a temp. of 400 DegC, while at 100 DegC a fair resistivity of 209 mW cm was reached. These results show that PA-ALD with TiCl4 and H2-N2 plasma is well suited for low-temp. deposition of high-quality TiN films. [on SciFinder (R)]

AB - Titanium nitride (TiN) films were deposited by a plasma-assisted at. layer deposition (PA-ALD) process, based on TiCl4 precursor dosing and remote H2-N2 plasma exposure, at temps. ranging from 100 to 400 DegC. The plasma, the PA-ALD process, and the resulting TiN material properties were extensively investigated. The plasma was studied by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe, revealing an ion d. of 109 cm-3 and an electron temp. of 3.5 eV just above the substrate. Under floating conditions there is thus a considerable ion flux towards the substrate per ALD cycle with a typical ion energy of .apprx.15 eV. TiN film growth was studied by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, revealing self-limiting surface reactions for the complete temp. range. At 100 DegC the growth rate of 0.3 A/cycle was found to be significantly lower than the growth rate of 0.6 A/cycle at 400 DegC. The stoichiometry of the films varied with the plasma exposure time, while the Cl content was mostly affected by the deposition temp. (2.1 atom % at 100 DegC to 0.07 atom % at 400 DegC). Resistivities as low as 71 mW cm were obtained at a temp. of 400 DegC, while at 100 DegC a fair resistivity of 209 mW cm was reached. These results show that PA-ALD with TiCl4 and H2-N2 plasma is well suited for low-temp. deposition of high-quality TiN films. [on SciFinder (R)]

U2 - 10.1149/1.2344843

DO - 10.1149/1.2344843

M3 - Article

VL - 153

SP - G956-G965

JO - Journal of the Electrochemical Society

JF - Journal of the Electrochemical Society

SN - 0013-4651

IS - 11

ER -